Table 1

Food consumption and mental health indicators by country and gender

DE

PL

BG

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

N = 394

N = 302

N = 351

N = 138

N = 449

N = 205


Food Groupa

Mean (SD)

Mean (SD)

Mean (SD)

Mean (SD)

Mean (SD)

Mean (SD)

Sweets

3.3 (1.0)

3.0 (1.0)

3.1 (0.9)

3.1 (0.8)

3.6 (0.9)

3.4 (0.9)

Cakes/cookies

2.3 (0.6)

2.2 (0.6)

2.8 (0.8)

2.7 (0.8)

3.1 (0.9)

3.0 (0.9)

Snacks

2.1 (0.7)

2.3 (0.7)

2.1 (0.8)

2.2 (0.9)

2.8 (0.9)

2.7 (0.8)

Fast food

2.2 (0.6)

2.4 (0.6)

1.8 (0.7)

2.0 (0.8)

3.1 (1.0)

3.5 (0.9)

Fresh fruits

3.5 (0.9)

3.2 (0.9)

3.3 (0.9)

3.0 (0.9)

3.6 (0.9)

3.3 (0.8)

Salad

3.3 (0.8)

3.1 (0.8)

3.1 (0.8)

3.0 (0.8)

3.7 (0.9)

3.4 (0.8)

Cooked vegetables

3.1 (0.8)

3.0 (0.8)

2.7 (0.9)

2.6 (0.9)

3.0 (0.9)

3.1 (0.9)

Soft drinks

2.5 (1.1)

2.9 (1.0)

2.9 (1.1)

3.1 (0.9)

2.9 (1.2)

3.3 (1.1)

Meat

3.0 (1.0)

3.6 (0.9)

3.3 (0.9)

3.6 (0.9)

3.1 (1.0)

3.7 (0.9)

Fish

2.0 (0.7)

2.2 (0.8)

2.2 (0.7)

2.3 (0.7)

2.3 (0.7)

2.5 (0.8)

Milk products

3.9 (0.9)

3.9 (0.9)

3.3 (1.0)

3.2 (1.0)

3.8 (0.8)

3.7 (0.9)

Cereal/cereal products

3.9 (0.9)

3.6 (1.1)

3.6 (1.0)

3.5 (1.1)

3.5 (1.1)

3.8 (1.1)

Mental Health Indicators

M-BDIb

28.1 (15.6)

25.2 (14.7)

33.6 (17.4)

27.6 (15.2)

33.6 (15.4)

29.9 (13.6)

PSSc

25.2 (8.1)

22.9 (8.0)

29.3 (7.5)

25.0 (6.9)

26.5 (7.8)

23.8 (7.3)


a Mean of the consumption frequency scale from 1 = never to 5 = several times per day

b Mean Modified Beck Depression Index, higher scores indicate stronger depressive symptoms

c Mean Perceived Stress Scale by Cohen, higher scores indicate higher perceived stress

Mikolajczyk et al. Nutrition Journal 2009 8:31   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-8-31

Open Data