Table 3

Associations between food consumption and perceived stress and depressive symptoms (multivariable analysis adjusted for country and for all other variables in the table, separate models for males and females and for both mental health indicators)

Perceived Stress score (PSS)

Depressive Symptoms score (M-BDI)

Female

Male

Female

Male

Food group or subscale

p-value

Estimate*

p-value

Estimate*

p-value

Estimate*

p-value

Estimate*


Sweets/Cookies/Snacks/Fast food#

0.03

0.72

0.29

-0.46

0.15

0.96

0.30

-0.89

Fruits/Vegetables+

<0.01

-1.17

0.43

-0.40

<0.01

-2.37

0.94

-0.07

Soft drinks

0.83

-0.05

0.23

0.40

0.16

-0.64

0.64

0.29

Meat

0.11

-0.40

0.91

0.04

0.01

-1.38

0.34

-0.66

Fish

0.06

-0.69

0.83

-0.09

0.95

-0.05

0.71

0.31

Milk products

0.12

-0.44

0.49

-0.26

0.23

-0.72

0.22

-0.87

Cereal products

0.99

0.00

0.38

-0.28

0.61

-0.26

0.17

-0.79


* Change in the corresponding score (PSS or M-BDI) per one unit of the food group frequency scale

** Sweets/cookies/Snacks/Fast food subscale: mean of four items (sweets, cakes/cookies, snacks, fast food)

+ Fruits/Vegetables subscale: mean of three items (fresh fruits, salads, cooked vegetables)

Mikolajczyk et al. Nutrition Journal 2009 8:31   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-8-31

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