Table 3

Glycemic, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses to whey peptide (NOP-47) and placebo.

Variables

NOP-47

Placebo


Serum Glucose (mg/dL)

Pre (Pre-Supplementation)

93.2 ± 6.5

96.6 ± 9.0

Pre-Ingestion (2 wk Post)

93.9 ± 7.6

93.6 ± 7.0

15 min

93.7 ± 7.6

92.8 ± 6.0

30 min

94.1 ± 7.11

92.5 ± 6.1

45 min

93.5 ± 6.7

92.3 ± 5.8

60 min

93.0 ± 6.5

92.6 ± 7.0

90 min

93.7 ± 6.4

92.7 ± 6.6

120 min

93.4 ± 6.9

91.2 ± 6.5

Serum FRAP (μmol/L of Trolox Equivalents)

Pre (Pre-Supplementation)

364 ± 93

385 ± 78

Pre-Ingestion (2 wk Post)

354 ± 82

347 ± 67

15 min

370 ± 82

359 ± 76

30 min*

375 ± 80

369 ± 86

45 min

351 ± 78

366 ± 86

60 min

364 ± 76

358 ± 72

90 min

341 ± 73

359 ± 79

120 min

349 ± 76

349 ± 69

Plasma MPO (pmol/L)

Pre (Pre-Supplementation)

397 ± 162

362 ± 116

Pre-Ingestion (2 wk Post)

374 ± 117

347 ± 123

15 min

372 ± 118

361 ± 136

30 min

382 ± 145

358 ± 126

45 min

400 ± 132

366 ± 124

60 min*

431 ± 136

390 ± 133

90 min*

420 ± 125

394 ± 112

120 min

392 ± 135

377 ± 115

Plasma CRP (mg/dL)

Pre (Pre-Supplementation)

1.05 ± 0.88

1.75 ± 3.14

Pre-Ingestion (2 wk Post)

1.24 ± 1.51

1.11 ± 1.42

15 min

1.33 ± 1.73

1.01 ± 1.23

30 min

1.33 ± 1.77

1.14 ± 1.59

45 min

1.29 ± 1.75

1.15 ± 1.61

60 min

1.31 ± 1.77

1.08 ± 1.45

90 min

1.31 ± 1.75

1.09 ± 1.46

120 min

1.24 ± 1.65

1.02 ± 1.43

Plasma MDA (μmol/L)

Pre (Pre-Supplementation)

0.31 ± 0.13

0.37 ± 0.16

Pre-Ingestion (2 wk Post)

0.32 ± 0.13

0.31 ± 0.13

15 min

0.31 ± 0.13

0.30 ± 0.12

30 min

0.33 ± 0.13

0.30 ± 0.11

45 min

0.34 ± 0.14

0.31 ± 0.12

60 min

0.32 ± 0.12

0.30 ± 0.14

90 min

0.32 ± 0.15

0.30 ± 0.15

120 min

0.32 ± 0.16

0.30 ± 0.14

sE-selectin (ng/mL)

Pre (Pre-Supplementation)

22.6 ± 7.4

20.7 ± 8.5

Pre-Ingestion (2 wk Post)

19.6 ± 7.3

19.2 ± 7.3

60 min

20.0 ± 8.5

19.0 ± 7.6

120 min

19.7 ± 8.7

20.4 ± 8.6

sICAM-1 (ng/mL)

Pre (Pre-Supplementation)

104 ± 17

95 ± 25

Pre-Ingestion (2 wk Post)

100 ± 21

97 ± 13

60 min

96 ± 16

94 ± 21

120 min

96 ± 16

97 ± 17

sVCAM-1 (ng/mL)

Pre (Pre-Supplementation)

756 ± 145

732 ± 125

Pre-Ingestion (2 wk Post)

712 ± 124

709 ± 143

60 min

701 ± 112

700 ± 144

120 min

710 ± 118

719 ± 186

IL-6 (pg/mL)

Pre (Pre-Supplementation)

493 ± 1162

473 ± 1077

Pre-Ingestion (2 wk Post)

417 ± 1002

492 ± 1238

60 min

563 ± 1441

504 ± 1266

120 min

579 ± 1536

483 ± 1133

IL-8 (pg/mL)

Pre (Pre-Supplementation)

158 ± 243

139 ± 213

Pre-Ingestion (2 wk Post)

105 ± 183

159 ± 288

60 min

155 ± 323

164 ± 300

120 min

187 ± 370

183 ± 331

MCP-1 (pg/mL)

Pre (Pre-Supplementation)

435 ± 306

305 ± 132

Pre-Ingestion (2 wk Post)

428 ± 282

427 ± 244

60 min

447 ± 322

423 ± 276

120 min

398 ± 286

427 ± 316

TNF-alpha (pg/mL)

Pre (Pre-Supplementation)

39 ± 70

43 ± 89

Pre-Ingestion (2 wk Post)

19 ± 35

41 ± 105

60 min

39 ± 93

47 ± 120

120 min

63 ± 193

54 ± 141

VEGF (pg/mL)

Pre (Pre-Supplementation)

1320 ± 1394

1189 ± 1328

Pre-Ingestion (2 wk Post)

994 ± 1080

1206 ± 1435

60 min

1096 ± 1278

1201 ± 1401

120 min

1206 ± 1406

1273 ± 1548


Values are mean ± SD. *Significant main time effect, P < 0.05 from Pre-Ingestion.

FRAP = ferric-reducing ability of plasma; MPO = myeloperoxidase; CRP = C-reactive protein; MDA = malondialdehyde; sICAM-1 = soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1; sVAM-1 = soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1; IL-6 = interleukin-6; MCP-1 = monocyte chemotactic protein-1; TNF-alpha = tumor necrosis factor alpha; VEGF = Vascular endothelial growth factor.

Ballard et al. Nutrition Journal 2009 8:34   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-8-34

Open Data