Open Access Open Badges Research

Influence of the calcium concentration in the presence of organic phosphorus on the physicochemical compatibility and stability of all-in-one admixtures for neonatal use

Daniela de Oliveira Ribeiro1, Bianca Waruar Lobo1, Nádia Maria Volpato1, Venício Féo da Veiga2, Lúcio Mendes Cabral1 and Valeria Pereira de Sousa1*

Author affiliations

1 Departamento de Medicamentos, Faculdade de Farmácia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS, Bloco B ss sala 15, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-902, Brazil

2 Instituto de Microbiologia Professor Paulo de Góes, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-902, Brazil

For all author emails, please log on.

Citation and License

Nutrition Journal 2009, 8:51  doi:10.1186/1475-2891-8-51

Published: 26 October 2009



Preterm infants need high amounts of calcium and phosphorus for bone mineralization, which is difficult to obtain with parenteral feeding due to the low solubility of these salts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical compatibility of high concentrations of calcium associated with organic phosphate and its influence on the stability of AIO admixtures for neonatal use.


Three TPN admixture formulas were prepared in multilayered bags. The calcium content of the admixtures was adjusted to 0, 46.5 or 93 mg/100 ml in the presence of a fixed organic phosphate concentration as well as lipids, amino acids, inorganic salts, glucose, vitamins and oligoelements at pH 5.5. Each admixture was stored at 4°C, 25°C or 37°C and evaluated over a period of 7 days. The physicochemical stability parameters evaluated were visual aspect, pH, sterility, osmolality, peroxide formation, precipitation, and the size of lipid globules.


Color alterations occurred from the first day on, and reversible lipid film formation from the third day of study for the admixtures stored at 25°C and 37°C. According to the parameters evaluated, the admixtures were stable at 4°C; and none of them presented precipitated particles due to calcium/phosphate incompatibility or lipid globules larger than 5 μm, which is the main parameter currently used to evaluate lipid emulsion stability. The admixtures maintained low peroxide levels and osmolarity was appropriate for parenteral administration.


The total calcium and calcium/phosphorus ratios studied appeared not to influence the physicochemical compatibility and stability of AIO admixtures.