Table 3

Immunomodulatory Polysaccharide-Rich Plant Powders: Oral Animal Studies

Source

Animal

Oral dose/day

Duration

Treatment

Significant effects

Reference


Agaricus (A. blazei) subrufescens (fruit bodies)

6-week ♂ C57BL/6, C3H/HeJ and BALB/c mice (3/group)

16, 32 or 64 mg

2 weeks

Healthy animals

32 and 64 mg ↑ liver mononuclear cell cytotoxicity

[25]


Grifola frondosa

6-week ♀ ICR mice (10-15/group)

5% of diet

36 weeks

Oral N-butyl-N'-butanolnitrosamine daily for first 8 weeks

↓ #s of animals with bladder tumors; ↓ tumor weight; ↑ peritoneal Mø chemotactic activity, splenic lymphocyte blastogenic response & cytotoxic activity

[70]


Laminaria angustata

Weanling SD rats (58/group)

5% of diet

26 weeks

IG DMBA, beginning of week 5

↑ time to tumor development and ↓ # of adenocarcinomas in adenocarcinoma-bearing animals

[77]


Lentinula (Lentinus) edodes

6-week ♀ ICR mice (10-17/group)

5% of diet

36 weeks

Oral BBN daily for first 8 weeks

↓ # of animals with bladder tumors; ↓ tumor weight; ↑ Mø chemotactic activity, splenic lymphocyte blastogenic response, cytotoxic activity

[70]


7-8 -week ♂ Swiss mice (10/group)

1%, 5% or 10% of diet of 4 different lineages days 1-15

16 days

Injected IP N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea day 15

All 3 doses of one lineage and the 5% dose of two other lineages ↓ #s of micronucleated bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes

[79]


Lentinula edodes (fruit bodies)

5-week ♀ ICR mice

(14/group × 2)

10%, 20% or 30% of diet

25 days

Injected IP Sarcoma-180 ascites

All 3 doses ↓ Sarcoma-180 tumor weight

[78]


Mice: 1) CDF1; 2) C3H; 3) BALB/c; 4,5) C57BL/6N (9/group × 3)

20% of diet

25 days

Injected SC 1) IMC carcinoma, 2) MM-46 carcinoma, 3) Meth-A fibrosarcoma, 4) B-16 melanoma, or 5) Lewis lung carcinoma cells

↓ growth of MM-46, B-16, Lewis lung, and IMC tumors; ↑ lifespan in Lewis lung and MM-46 animals


ICR mice (14/group × 2)

20% of diet days 1-7, days 7-31 or days 14-31

31 days

Injected IP Sarcoma-180 ascites

↓ tumor weight & growth when fed days 7-31 or 14-31


Mice: 1) CDF1; 2) C3 H (5/group × 4)

20% of diet

7-12 days

Injected SC: 1) IMC carcinoma or 2) MM-46 carcinoma cells

↑ spreading rate of activated Mø ↑ phagocytic activity


Phellinus linteus

4-week ♂ ICR mice (10/group)

2 mg

1 month

Healthy animals

↓ serum & splenocyte IgE production; ↑ proportion of splenic CD4+ T cells & splenocyte IFN-γ production

[31]


Pleurotus ostreatus

6-week ♀ ICR mice

(10-20/group)

5% of diet

36 weeks

Oral BBN daily for first 8 weeks

↓ #s of animals with bladder tumors; ↓ tumor weight; ↑ plasma Mø chemotactic activity, splenic lymphocyte blastogenic response, cytotoxic activity

[70]


Ramberg et al. Nutrition Journal 2010 9:54   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-54

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