Table 5

Immunomodulatory Polysaccharide Products: Composition and Structure

Source

Category

Features

MW

Monosaccharide composition

Reference


Agaricus subrufescens (A. blazei)

Extract

β-1,6-D-glucan

10,000

NA

[66]


Agaricus subrufescens (fruit body)

Extract

α-1,6- and α-1,4 glucans with β-1,6-glucopyranosyl backbone (629.2 mcg/mg polysaccharides, 43.5 mcg/mg protein)

170,000

glucose

[24]


α-1,4 glucans & β-1,6 glucans with β-1,3 side branches; α-1,6 glucans; β-1,6; 1-3 glucans, β-1,4 glucans; β-1,3 glucans; β-1,6; α-1,3 glucans; riboglucans, galactoglucomannans, β-1,2; β-1,3 glucomannans

NA

glucose, mannose, galactose, ribose

[25,117,118]


Agaricus subrufescens (mycelia)

Extract (ATOM)

β-1,6-D-glucan, protein complex, 5% protein

100,000-1,000,000

glucose, mannose, galactose, ribose

[93]


Aloe barbadensis (leaf gel)

Whole tissue

Dry weight: 10% polysaccharides; acemannan, aloemannan, aloeride, pectic acid, galactans, arabinans, glucomannans

average 2,000,000

mannose, glucose, galactose, arabinose, xylose, rhamnose

[119,120]


Extract (aloemannan)

neutral partially acetylated glucomannan, mainly β-1,4-mannans

>200,000

mannose, glucose

[121]


Extract (aloeride)

NA

4,000,000-7,000,000

37% glucose, 23.9% galactose, 19.5% mannose, 10.3% arabinose

[122]


Extract (acemannan)

β-1,4 acetylated mannan

80,000

mannose

[123]


Aloe barbadensis, (leaf gel), Larix sp. (bark), Anogeissus latifolia (bark), Astragalus gummifer (stem), Oryza sativa (seed), glucosamine

Extracts (Ambrotose® powder)

β-1,4 acetylated mannan, arabinogalactans, polysaccharide gums, rice starch, 5.4% protein

57.3% ≥ 950,000; 26.4% < 950,000 and ≥80,000; 16.3% ≤ 10,000

mannose, galactose, arabinose, glucose, galacturonic acid, rhamnose, xylose, fructose, fucose, glucosamine, galacturonic acid

(unpublished data, Mannatech Incorporated)


Aloe barbadensis (leaf gel), Larix sp. (bark), Undaria pinnatifida (frond), Anogeissus latifolia (bark), Astragalus gummifer (stem), Oryza sativa (seed), glucosamine

Extracts (Advanced Ambrotose® powder)

β-1,4 acetylated mannan, arabinogalactans, polysaccharide gums, fucoidans, rice starch, 6% protein, 1% fatty acids

13% = 1,686,667; 46% = 960,000 30% <950,000 and ≥70,000; 11% ≤ 10,000


Avena spp. (seed endosperm)

Extract

β-1,3;1,4 particulate (1-3 μ) glucans

1,100,000

glucose

[43]


Avena spp. (seed)

Extract

β-1,4,1,3 particulate glucans (linear chains of β-D-glycopyranosyl units; 70% β 1-4 linked)

2,000,000

NA

[41,124]


Buplerum falcatum (root)

Extract (bupleuran 2IIc)

6 linked galactosyl chains with terminal glucuronic acid substituted to β-galactosyl chains

NA

galactose, glucuronic acid, rhamnose

[35]


Citrus spp. (fruit)

Extract

α-1,4-linked partially esterified D-anhydrogalacturonic acid units interrupted periodically with 1,2-rhamnose

70,000-100,000

galactose, galacturonic acid, arabinose, glucose, xylose, rhamnose

[125]


Cladosiphon okamuranus (frond)

Extract

α-1,3-fucopyranose sulfate

56,000

fucose:glucuronic acid (6.1:1.0)

[126]


Cordyceps sinensis (mycelia)

Extract

β-1,3-D-glucan with 1,6-branched chains

NA

NA

[127]


Cyamopsis tetragonolobus (seed)

Extract (guar gum)

Main chain of β-1,4-mannopyranosyl units with α-galactopyranosyl units

220,000

mannose, galactose

[36,128]


Extract (partially-hydrolyzed guar gum)

NA

20,000

mannose, galactose

[50]


Flammulina velutipes

Extract

NA

NA

glucose, mannose, galactose

[117]


Flammulina velutipes (fruit body)

Extract

β-1,3 glucan

NA

glucose

[129]


Ganoderma lucidum

Whole tissue

Linear β-1,3-glucans with varying degrees of

D-glucopyranosyl branching, β-glucan/protein complexes, heteropolysaccharides

400,000-1,000,000

glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, uronic acid

[130]


Extract

NA

7,000-9,000

NA

[67]


Ganoderma lucidum (fruit body)

Extract

NA

7,000-9,000

NA


β-linked heteroglycan peptide

513,000

fructose, galactose, glucose, rhamnose, xylose (3.167:

0.556:6.89:0.549:3.61)

[15]


Ganoderma tsugae

Extract

55.6% carbohydrates (12.5% polysaccharides); 12% triterpenes, 1.7% sodium, 0.28% protein, 0% lipid

NA

NA

[53]


Ginkgo biloba (seed)

Extract

89.7% polysaccharides

NA

glucose, fructose, galactose, rhamnose

[131]


Grifola frondosa

Whole tissue

β-1,3; 1, 6-glucans, α-glucans, mannoxyloglucans, xyloglucans, mannogalactofucans

NA

glucose, fucose, xylose, mannose, galactose

[117]


Grifola frondosa (fruit body)

Extract

(D fraction)

β-1,6-glucan with β-1,3 branches, 30% protein

NA

glucose

[132]


Extract

(X fraction)

β-1,6-D-glucan with α-1,4 branches, 35% protein

550,000-558,000

glucose


Hordeum spp. (seed)

Extract

β-1,3;1,4-and β-1,3;1,6-D-glucans

45,000-404,000

glucose

[75]


Primarily linear β-1,3;1,4- glucans

NA

glucose

[124]


Laminaria spp.

(frond)

Extract (laminarin)

β-1,3;1-6 glucan

7,700

glucose

[29]


β-1,3 glucan with some β-1,6 branches and a small amount of protein

4,500-5,500

glucose

[44]


Extract

Fucoidan

NA

NA

[133]


Larix occidentalis (bark)

Extract

β-1,3;1,6-D-galactans with arabinofuranosyl and arabinopyranosyl side chains

19,000-40,000

galactose:arabinose (6:1), uronic acid

[128,134]


Lentinula edodes

Extract (SME)

β-1,3-glucans (4-5%), α-1,4-glucan (8-10%), protein (11-14%)

NA

glucose

[80]


Extract

β-glucan

1,000

glucose

[27]


Whole tissue

Linear β-1,3-glucans, β-1,4;1,6-glucans, heterogalactan

NA

glucose, galactose, mannose, fucose, xylose

[135]


Extract (lentinan)

β-1,3-glucan with 2 β-1,6 glucopyranoside branchings for every 5 β-1,3-glucopyranoside linear linkages

500,000

glucose

[136]


Lentinula edodes (fruit body)

Lentinula edodes

Extract (lentinan)

Neutral β-1,3-D glucan with two β-1,6 glucoside branches for every five β-1,3 units

400,000-800,000

glucose

[137]


Extract

(KS-2)

Peptide units and mannan connected by α-glycosidic bonds

60,000-90,000

mannose, glucose


Lentinula edodes (mycelia or fruit body)

Extract

Triple helical β-1,3-D glucan with β-1,6 glucoside branches

1,000,000

glucose

[3]


Lentinula edodes (mycelia)

Extract

(LEM)

44% sugars, 24.6% protein

~1,000,000

xylose, arabinose, glucose, galactose, mannose, fructose

[3]


Extract (PG101)

72.4% polysaccharides, 26.2% protein, 1.4% hexosamine

NA

55.6% glucose, 25.9% galactose, 18.5% mannose

[138]


Lycium barbarum

Whole tissue

α-1,4;1,6-D-glucans, lentinan, β-1,3;1,6 heteroglucans, heterogalactans, heteromannans, xyloglucans

NA

glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose

[139]


Lycium barbarum (fruit body)

Extract

(LBP3p)

88.36% sugars, 7.63% protein

157,000

galactose, glucose, rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, xylose (molar ratio of 1:2.12:1.25:1.10:1.95:1.76)

[91]


Panax quinquefolium (root)

Extract

Poly-furanosyl-pyranosyl saccharides

NA

arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucuronic acid

[33]


NA

NA

glucose, mannose, xylose

[140]


Extract

(Cold-fX®)

90% poly-furanosyl-pyranosyl-saccharides

NA

furanose

[20]


Phellinus linteus (fruit body)

Extract

α- and β-linked 1,3 acidic proteoglycan with 1,6 branches

150,000

glucose, mannose, arabinose, xylose

[141]


Phellinus linteus (mycelia)

Extract

83.2% polysaccharide (4.4% β-glucan), 6.4% protein, 0.1% fat

NA

glucose

[142]


Pholiota nameko (fruit body)

Extract (PNPS-1)

NA

114,000

mannose, glucose, galactose, arabinose, xylose (molar ratio of 1:8.4:13.6:29.6:6.2)

[55]


Pleurotus ostreatus (mycelia)

Extract

β-1,3;1,6-D-glucans

316,260

glucose

[143]


Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Extract (WGP)

Particulate β-1,3;1,6-D-glucan

NA

glucose

[144]


Extract

β-glucans with β-1,6 branches with a β-1,3 regions

NA

glucose

[124]


Extract

(SBG)

soluble β-1,3-D-glucan with β-1,3 side chains attached with β-1,6 linkages

20,000

glucose

[145]


Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (mycelia)

Extract

(SSG)

β-1,3-D-glucan, <1% protein (>98% polysaccharide)

NA

glucose

[83]


Sclerotium rofsii

Extract (scleroglucan)

β-1,3;1,6 glucan

1,000,000

glucose

[29]


Trametes versicolor (fruit body)

Extract

(PSP)

α-1,4, β-1,3 glucans, 10% peptides

100,000

glucose, arabinose, mannose, rhamnose

[146]


Trametes versicolor (mycelia)

Extract

(PSK)

β-1,4;1,3;1,6-D-glucans, protein

94,000

glucose (74.6%), mannose (15.5%), xylose (4.8%), galactose (2.7%), fucose (2.4%)

[137,147]


Undaria pinnatifida (sporophyll)

Extract

Galactofucan sulfate

9,000

fucose:galactose 1.0:1.1

[148]


Galactofucan sulfate

63,000

fucose:galactose:gluc-uronic acid (1.0:1.0:0.04)

[149]


β-1,3-galactofucan sulphate

38,000

fucose, galactose

[150]


Unidentified source

Extract (modified citrus pectin)

NA

10,000

galactose, rhamnose, uronic acid

[125]


Extract (highly methoxylated pectin)

NA

200,000

NA

[36]


Ramberg et al. Nutrition Journal 2010 9:54   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-54

Open Data