Table 7

Fate of Immunomodulatory Polysaccharide Products Following Oral Intake

Category

Product

Metabol-ized by human gut bacteria?

Study type

Fate

(method: tissues detected)

References


Arabinogalactans

Larix spp.

yes

in vitro

NA

[163-169]


Fucoidans

Undaria pinnatifida

no

in vitro

Ab: human plasma

[108,170]


Galactomannans

Cyamopsis tetragonolobus (partially hydrolyzed guar gum)

yes

in vivo

NA

[171]


Cyamopsis tetragonolobus (guar gum)

yes

in vitro

NA

[167]


Glucans

Hordeum vulgare

NA

in vivo

Fluorescein-labeled: mouse Mø in the spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes

[73]


Laminaria digitata (laminarin)

yes

in vitro

NA

[29,170,172]


Sclerotium rofsii (scleroglucan) glucan phosphate, Laminaria spp. (laminarin)

NA

in vivo

Alexa Fluor 488-labeled: mouse intestinal epithelial cells, plasma, GALT

[29]


Saccharomyces cervisiae (particulate)

NA

in vivo

Fluorescein-labeled: mouse macrophage in the spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes

[73]


Trametes versicolor

(PSK)

NA

in vivo

14C-labeled: rat and rabbit serum; mouse GI tract, bone marrow, salivary glands, liver, brain, spleen, pancreas

[173]


Mannans

Aloe barbadensis (aloemannan)

yes

in vitro

FITC-labeled: mouse, GI tract

[121,174]


Aloe barbadensis

(gel powder)

yes

in vitro

NA

[163]


Aloe barbadensis (acemannan)

NA

in vivo

14C-labeled: dog systemic, particularly liver, bone marrow, gut, kidney, thymus, spleen

(Carrington Laboratories, personal communication)


Mixed polysaccharide products

Ambrotose complex®, Advanced Ambrotose® powder

yes

in vitro

NA

[163,175]


Pectins

NA

yes

in vitro

NA

[165-167,176]


Buplerum falcatum (bupleuran 2IIc)

NA

in vivo

Ab bound: mouse Peyer's patch, liver

[109]


Ramberg et al. Nutrition Journal 2010 9:54   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-54

Open Data