Table 1

Baseline anthropometric, body composition, biochemical parameters and dietary analysis for the high energy, high carbohydrate diet + exercise (HED; 2,600: 55:15:30), no diet + exercise (ND), very low carbohydrate, high protein diet + exercise (VLCHP: 1,200; 63:7:30), low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet + exercise (LCMP: 1,200; 50:20:30), high carbohydrate, low protein diet + exercise (HCLP: 1,200; 55:15:30) and no diet + no exercise control (CON).

Demographics

Grand Mean

(n = 141)

HED

(n = 9)

ND

(n = 5)

VLCHP

(n = 39)

LCMP

(n = 36)

HCLP

(n = 43)

CON

(n = 9)

P-value


Age (years)

39 ± 8

43 ± 7

42 ± 2

38 ± 8

40 ± 7

38 ± 8

32 ± 10

0.06

Height (cm)

163 ± 7

162 ± 8

165 ± 3

163 ± 8

164 ± 7

164 ± 6

163 ± 6

0.95

Weight (kg)

93 ± 17

88 ± 16

93 ± 28

95 ± 18

95 ± 15

93 ± 15

86 ± 17

0.65

Body mass index (kg•m-2)

35 ± 6

33 ± 6

34 ± 11

36 ± 7

36 ± 6

35 ± 5

33 ± 6

0.70

Waist (cm)

98 ± 13

97 ± 6

86 ± 11

99 ± 15

102 ± 14

98 ± 11

92 ± 13

0.12

DXA fat-free mass (kg)

47 ± 7

46 ± 8

47 ± 11

48 ± 7

47 ± 6

48 ± 6

45 ± 7

0.87

DXA fat mass (kg)

39 ± 10

35 ± 9

41 ± 16

39 ± 10

42 ± 10

39 ± 9

35 ± 9

0.28

REE (kcals•d-1)

1632 ± 277

1297 ± 319

1462 ± 246

1690 ± 283f

1642 ± 249f

1642 ± 247f

1720 ± 265f

< 0.005

Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)

123 ± 13

122 ± 13

118 ± 4

125 ± 13

122 ± 14

123 ± 13

121 ± 13

0.89

Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)

82 ± 8

82 ± 11

81 ± 8

84 ± 10

82 ± 8

82 ± 7

80 ± 7

0.84

VO2 (ml/kg/min)

22 ± 4

24 ± 3

21 ± 4

22 ± 4

21 ± 5

22 ± 3

24 ± 5

0.51

Biochemical parameters

Grand Mean

HED

ND

VLCHP

LCMP

HCLP

CON

P-value


Total cholesterol (mmol•L-1)

5.0 ± 0.9

5.2 ± 1.0

5.4 ± 1.0

5.1 ± 0.9

5.0 ± 0.8

4.9 ± 1.0

5.1 ± 1.1

0.78

HDL cholesterol (mmol•L-1)

1.3 ± 0.3

1.4 ± 0.3

1.3 ± 0.2

1.3 ± 0.4

1.4 ± 0.3

1.3 ± 0.3

1.2 ± 0.3

0.31

LDL cholesterol (mmol•L-1)

3.0 ± 0.8

3.2 ± 0.9

3.5 ± 1.1

3.0 ± 0.9

2.9 ± 0.7

3.0 ± 0.8

3.2 ± 0.9

0.47

Triglycerides (mmol•L-1)

1.4 ± 0.6

1.2 ± 0.5

1.4 ± 0.3

1.6 ± 0.7

1.4 ± 0.6

1.4 ± 0.6

1.5 ± 0.7

0.73

Glucose (mmol•L-1)

5.4 ± 0.9

5.5 ± 0.5

5.2 ± 0.5

5.5 ± 1.2

5.4 ± 0.9

5.4 ± 0.6

5.1 ± 0.6

0.83

Insulin (pmol•L-1)

271 ± 331

252 ± 333

60 ± 50

351 ± 377

274 ± 410

227 ± 195

N/A

0.33

HOMA-IR

9.6 ± 11.4

9.5 ± 13.7

2.0 ± 1.6

12.5 ± 13.4

9.3 ± 12.9

8.1 ± 7.4

N/A

0.28

Cortisol (μg•dL-1)

34.9 ± 17.5

38.1 ± 31.8

35.6 ± 20.1

33.4 ± 16.7

34.7 ± 14.7

35.7 ± 16.2

N/A

0.96

Ketones (μM)

0.06 ± 0.04

0.18 ± 0.15

0.09 ± 0.09

0.10 ± 0.13

0.08 ± 0.06

0.08 ± 0.06

N/A

0.29

Leptin (pg•mL-1)

21.2 ± 6.4

20.1 ± 6.8

23.0 ± 7.5

22.8 ± 7.9

22.8 ± 7.9

21.2 ± 7.0

N/A

0.76

Dietary Intake

Grand Mean

HED

ND

VLCHP

LCMP

HCLP

CON

P-value


Caloric intake (kcal/kg/day)

21.7 ± 6.8

23.6 ± 5.3

22.3 ± 4.4

20.9 ± 6.4

21.1 ± 5.1

22.4 ± 8.5

---

0.87

Carbohydrate (g/kg/day)

2.5 ± 0.9

2.8 ± 0.9

2.4 ± 0.4

2.4 ± 0.9

2.4 ± 0.7

2.6 ± 1.1

---

0.24

Protein (g/kg/day)

0.9 ± 0.3

0.7 ± 0.2

0.8 ± 0.1

0.9 ± 0.3

0.9 ± 0.4

0.9 ± 0.3

---

< 0.001

Fat (g/kg/day)

0.9 ± 0.3

1.1 ± 0.2

1.1 ± 0.4

0.9 ± 0.2

0.9 ± 0.3

0.9 ± 0.4

---

0.95


All data is presented as means ± SD at baseline. Significance level was set at 0.05. dDifferent than VLCHP, P < 0.001 - 0.05; f Different than HED, P < 0.010. NOTE: No other differences at baseline existed (P > 0.05).

Kerksick et al. Nutrition Journal 2010 9:59   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-59

Open Data