Table 2

Anthropometric, body mass, body composition and energy expenditure changes for the high energy, high carbohydrate diet + exercise (HED; 2,600: 55:15:30), no diet + exercise (ND), very low carbohydrate, high protein diet + exercise (VLCHP: 1,200; 63:7:30), low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet + exercise (LCMP: 1,200; 50:20:30), high carbohydrate, low protein diet + exercise (HCLP: 1,200; 55:15:30) and control (CON) groups.

P-value


Variable

Group

Week 0

Week 1

Week 10

Week 14

Within Group

G × T


Waist (cm)

HED

97.0 ± 12.1

93.3 ± 15.3

94.1 ± 11.8

94.4 ± 12.1

0.78

0.22

ND

94.4 ± 22.2

93.7 ± 22.5

91.9 ± 21.3

93.7 ± 25.3

0.83

VLCHP

99.2 ± 15.4

97.7 ± 13.0

94.7 ± 12.7*

93.6 ± 12.5*†a

< 0.001

LCMP

101.8 ± 13.5

99.4 ± 13.0

96.1 ± 12.2*

95.6 ± 11.6*†a

< 0.001

HCLP

97.8 ± 11.0

96.1 ± 10.9

94.4 ± 10.8*

93.6 ± 10.4*

< 0.001

CON

92.3 ± 13.2

91.2 ± 14.2

93.7 ± 14.7

93.8 ± 17.9

0.61


Body Mass (kg)

HED

87.5 ± 16.2

86.9 ± 15.2

85.9 ± 13.1

84.0 ± 11.9a

0.26

< 0.005

ND

92.6 ± 28.4

92.0 ± 27.7

90.5 ± 27.4

90.1 ± 25.5

0.18

VLCHP

94.5 ± 18.1

92.7 ± 17.8*

89.8 ± 17.6*

89.5 ± 18.0*†a

< 0.001

LCMP

95.1 ± 14.9

93.8 ± 14.8*

91.6 ± 14.3*

91.4 ± 14.1*†a

< 0.001

HCLP

93.1 ± 15.0

91.8 ± 14.9*

89.2 ± 15.5*

89.5 ± 14.6*†a

< 0.001

CON

93.2 ± 16.6

85.8 ± 16.6

87.0 ± 17.4

86.8 ± 18.4

0.42


DXA Fat-Free Mass (kg)

HED

46.3 ± 7.9

46.4 ± 7.6

46.6 ± 7.3

44.9 ± 6.3a

0.13

< 0.05

ND

47.3 ± 10.8

47.5 ± 10.7

46.7 ± 10.4

47.5 ± 9.2

0.66

VLCHP

48.6 ± 7.8

47.8 ± 7.6*

47.7 ± 7.1

47.8 ± 7.8

< 0.05

LCMP

47.0 ± 5.6

46.6 ± 5.5

46.7 ± 5.8

47.0 ± 6.0

0.26

HCLP

47.6 ± 6.0

47.8 ± 5.9*

46.8 ± 5.9

46.8 ± 5.8*

< 0.05

CON

45.0 ± 7.1

45.1 ± 7.3

45.8 ± 7.3

45.6 ± 8.4

0.18


DXA Fat Mass (kg)

HED

35.0 ± 9.0

34.7 ± 8.7

33.4 ± 6.8

33.3 ± 6.7

0.27

< 0.05

ND

39.4 ± 16.4

38.8 ± 16.6

37.4 ± 15.0

36.4 ± 14.8

0.08

VLCHP

39.2 ± 10.3

38.5 ± 10.2*

35.7 ± 10.7*

35.5 ± 10.6*† a

< 0.001

LCMP

41.8 ± 10.0

40.8 ± 9.9*

38.7 ± 9.5*

38.3 ± 8.8*† a

< 0.001

HCLP

39.1 ± 9.4

38.5 ± 9.3*

36.4 ± 9.3*

36.1 ± 9.2*† a

< 0.001

CON

34.7 ± 8.9

34.3 ± 8.6

34.7 ± 9.8

34.7 ± 9.7

0.74


DXA % Fat (%)

HED

42.7 ± 4.6

42.4 ± 4.8

41.6 ± 3.6

42.4 ± 4.3

0.19

0.09

ND

44.5 ± 4.4

44.0 ± 4.2

43.7 ± 3.5

42.5 ± 4.8

0.22

VLCHP

44.2 ± 4.3

44.1 ± 4.4

42.1 ± 5.0*

42.0 ± 5.1*†e

< 0.001

LCMP

46.5 ± 4.6

46.2 ± 4.8

44.9 ± 4.9*

44.6 ± 4.6*†e

< 0.001

HCLP

44.6 ± 3.8

44.6 ± 3.9

43.1 ± 4.3*

43.0 ± 4.4*

< 0.001

CON

43.1 ± 2.6

42.8 ± 2.3

42.3 ± 2.6

42.1 ± 2.2

0.08


REE (kcals•d-1)

HED

1297 ± 319

1469 ± 260

1391 ± 255

1508 ± 205

0.08

0.08

ND

1462 ± 246

1571 ± 307

1640 ± 269

1585 ± 282

0.19

VLCHP

1690 ± 283

1606 ± 318*

1649 ± 296

1708 ± 298†e

< 0.01

LCMP

1642 ± 249

1570 ± 222

1616 ± 337

1639 ± 246e

0.18

HCLP

1642 ± 247

1572 ± 266

1648 ± 262

1659 ± 228†e

< 0.01

CON

1720 ± 265

1621 ± 281

1708 ± 259

1656 ± 254e

0.62


Dietary intake is presented as calorie intake: % carbohydrate: protein: fat. All data is presented as group means ± standard deviation for week 0, week 1, week 10 and week 14. Individual main effects for time are provided as within-group P-values. Group × time interaction effects are provided as GxT P-values. Between-group significance indicators represent the delta change from baseline at week 14. Significance level was 0.05. *Different from baseline, P < 0.05, Different than week 1, P < 0.05, aDifferent than CON, P < 0.05, eDifferent from HED, P < 0.05.

Kerksick et al. Nutrition Journal 2010 9:59   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-59

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