Table 3

Cardio respiratory and muscular fitness changes for the high energy, high carbohydrate diet + exercise (HED; 2,600: 55:15:30), no diet + exercise (ND), very low carbohydrate, high protein diet + exercise (VLCHP: 1,200; 63:7:30), low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet + exercise (LCMP: 1,200; 50:20:30), high carbohydrate, low protein diet + exercise (HCLP: 1,200; 55:15:30).

P-value


Variable

Group

Week 0

Week 10

Week 14

Within Group

G × T


Max VO2 (mL•kg•min-1)

HED

23.5 ± 3.2

22.9 ± 4.6

24.6 ± 3.9

0.22

< 0.05

ND

21.4 ± 4.1

22.2 ± 4.0

21.9 ± 3.5

0.45

VLCHP

21.6 ± 4.0

23.9 ± 4.3*

23.5 ± 4.4* a

< 0.001

LCMP

21.3 ± 4.6

22.0 ± 5.2

22.8 ± 4.7*

< 0.05

HCLP

21.7 ± 3.4

23.8 ± 4.4*

23.5 ± 3.9*a

< 0.001

CON

23.7 ± 4.9

24.0 ± 5.6

23.5 ± 4.9

0.80


BP 1RM (kg•kg-1)

HED

0.41 ± 0.09

0.46 ± 0.08

0.49 ± 0.08*

< 0.001

0.39

ND

0.36 ± 0.07

0.39 ± 0.05

0.42 ± 0.09*

0.053

VLCHP

0.39 ± 0.13

0.43 ± 0.12*

0.43 ± 0.12*f

< 0.001

LCMP

0.36 ± 0.09

0.40 ± 0.09*

0.41 ± 0.09*

< 0.001

HCLP

0.36 ± 0.08

0.41 ± 0.09*

0.42 ± 0.09*

< 0.001

CON

0.35 ± 0.09

0.37 ± 0.10

0.37 ± 0.09

0.36


BP Lifting Volume (kg•kg-1)

HED

5.1 ± 1.8

5.1 ± 3.7

5.2 ± 4.5

0.98

0.91

ND

5.5 ± 2.7

5.3 ± 1.9

4.5 ± 1.7

0.64

VLCHP

4.2 ± 2.0

4.8 ± 3.1

4.5 ± 2.7

0.30

LCMP

4.6 ± 2.3

4.9 ± 1.9

4.7 ± 2.0

0.75

HCLP

5.2 ± 2.5

5.2 ± 2.3

5.1 ± 2.2

0.87

CON

4.1 ± 2.4

5.2 ± 2.0

5.2 ± 1.4

0.33


LP 1RM (kg•kg-1)

HED

2.1 ± 0.5

2.3 ± 0.6

2.3 ± 0.6

0.10

0.24

ND

1.6 ± 0.3

1.7 ± 0.2

1.8 ± 0.3

0.08

VLCHP

1.9 ± 0.4

2.0 ± 0.5*

2.1 ± 0.5*f

< 0.001

LCMP

1.8 ± 0.5

1.9 ± 0.5*

2.0 ± 0.5*f

< 0.001

HCLP

1.7 ± 0.5

2.0 ± 0.5*

2.1 ± 0.5*

< 0.001

CON

1.9 ± 0.5

1.9 ± 0.3

2.0 ± 0.4

0.63


LP Lifting Volume (kg•kg-1)

HED

49 ± 30

59 ± 42

56 ± 60

0.61

0.53

ND

45 ± 19

56 ± 32

38 ± 20

0.48

VLCHP

47 ± 26

42 ± 21

47 ± 19

0.29

LCMP

42 ± 17

48 ± 24

47 ± 24

0.25

HCLP

45 ± 21

48 ± 34

46 ± 25

0.64

CON

41 ± 12

43 ± 19

46 ± 21

0.47


Dietary intake is presented as calorie intake: % carbohydrate: protein: fat. All data is presented as group means ± standard deviation for week 0, week 10 and week 14. Individual main effects for time are provided as within-group P-values. Group × time interaction effects are provided as GxT P -values. Between-group significance indicators represent the delta change from baseline at week 14. Significance level was 0.05. *Different from baseline, P < 0.05, aDifferent than CON, P < 0.05, fDifferent than HCLP, P < 0.05.

Kerksick et al. Nutrition Journal 2010 9:59   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-59

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