Table 4

Lipid panel, glucose and selected markers of fuel status and utilization for the high energy, high carbohydrate diet + exercise (HED; 2,600: 55:15:30), no diet + exercise (ND), very low carbohydrate, high protein diet + exercise (VLCHP: 1,200; 63:7:30), low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet + exercise (LCMP: 1,200; 50:20:30), high carbohydrate, low protein diet + exercise (HCLP: 1,200; 55:15:30).

P-value


Variable

Group

Week 0

Week 10

Week 14

Within Group

G × T


Total Cholesterol (mmol•L-1)

HED

5.2 ± 1.0

4.8 ± 0.9*

5.1 ± 1.3

0.12

0.67

ND

5.4 ± 1.0

5.1 ± 1.5

5.0 ± 1.0

0.33

VLCHP

5.2 ± 1.0

5.2 ± 1.1

5.1 ± 1.2

0.84

LCMP

4.9 ± 1.0

4.7 ± 0.9

5.0 ± 0.7

0.11

HCLP

4.9 ± 0.9

4.6 ± 0.9

4.7 ± 0.8

0.11

CON

5.1 ± 1.1

4.6 ± 1.1

4.9 ± 1.1

< 0.01


HDL Cholesterol (mmol•L-1)

HED

1.4 ± 0.3

1.3 ± 0.2

1.4 ± 0.2

0.16

0.90

ND

1.3 ± 0.2

1.3 ± 0.2

1.3 ± 0.2

0.55

VLCHP

1.3 ± 0.4

1.3 ± 0.3

1.3 ± 0.4

0.94

LCMP

1.4 ± 0.4

1.3 ± 0.3

1.4 ± 0.3

0.18

HCLP

1.3 ± 0.2

1.3 ± 0.3

1.3 ± 0.3

0.86

CON

1.2 ± 0.3

1.2 ± 0.2

1.2 ± 0.3

0.81


LDL Cholesterol (mmol•L-1)

HED

3.2 ± 0.9

2.9 ± 0.7

3.2 ± 1.1

0.10

0.63

ND

3.5 ± 1.1

3.3 ± 1.6

3.3 ± 1.2

0.55

VLCHP

3.1 ± 0.8

3.2 ± 0.9

3.1 ± 1.0

0.97

LCMP

2.8 ± 0.7

2.7 ± 0.7

2.9 ± 0.6

0.16

HCLP

3.0 ± 0.7

2.8 ± 0.8

2.9 ± 0.7

0.28

CON

3.2 ± 0.9

2.8 ± 1.0

3.0 ± 0.8

0.07


Triglycerides (mmol•L-1)

HED

1.2 ± 0.5

1.2 ± 0.4

1.2 ± 0.6

0.89

0.95

ND

1.4 ± 0.3

1.0 ± 0.3*

1.0 ± 0.2

0.07

VLCHP

1.6 ± 0.7

1.4 ± 0.9

1.5 ± 0.9

0.09

LCMP

1.4 ± 0.7

1.3 ± 0.6

1.3 ± 0.5

0.10

HCLP

1.3 ± 0.6

1.2 ± 0.5*

1.2 ± 0.5

< 0.05

CON

1.5 ± 0.7

1.3 ± 0.8

1.5 ± 0.9

0.80


Insulin (pmol•L-1)

HED

252 ± 333

211 ± 312

206 ± 313

0.08

0.46

ND

60 ± 50

53 ± 46

154 ± 226

0.43

VLCHP

351 ± 377

292 ± 341*

294 ± 325*b

< 0.005

LCMP

274 ± 410

233 ± 392

245 ± 398

0.23

HCLP

227 ± 19

187 ± 200

200 ± 218

0.13

CON


Glucose (mmol•L-1)

HED

5.5 ± 0.5

5.8 ± 0.5

5.6 ± 0.5

0.20

0.85

ND

5.2 ± 0.5

5.3 ± 1.3

5.1 ± 0.5

0.86

VLCHP

5.5 ± 1.3

5.7 ± 1.9

5.6 ± 1.9

0.33

LCMP

5.4 ± 1.0

5.4 ± 0.6

5.3 ± 0.6

0.39

HCLP

5.4 ± 0.8

5.4 ± 0.6

5.2 ± 0.6

< 0.05

CON

5.1 ± 0.6

5.0 ± 0.6

4.9 ± 0.9

0.75


HOMA-IR

HED

9.5 ± 13.7

8.1 ± 11.9

7.3 ± 10.6

0.11

0.55

ND

2.0 ± 1.6

1.7 ± 1.3

5.3 ± 7.8

0.42

VLCHP

12.5 ± 13.4

10.9 ± 12.5

10.5 ± 11.6* b

< 0.05

LCMP

9.3 ± 12.9

8.0 ± 12.6

7.8 ± 10.9

0.21

HCLP

8.1 ± 7.4

6.6 ± 7.4

6.8 ± 7.6

0.11

CON


Leptin (pg•mL-1)

HED

21.2 ± 6.4

19.4 ± 4.0

18.6 ± 5.9

0.33

< 0.05

ND

20.1 ± 6.8

15.4 ± 8.8

19.1 ± 7.9

0.18

VLCHP

23.0 ± 7.5

17.1 ± 7.4*

18.0 ± 7.2*

< 0.001

LCMP

22.8 ± 7.9

21.8 ± 8.3

20.1 ± 7.8*

< 0.05

HCLP

21.2 ± 7.0

17.8 ± 7.0*

17.8 ± 7.7*

< 0.001

CON


Ketones (uM)

HED

0.06 ± 0.04

0.06 ± 0.04

0.16 ± 0.25

0.23

< 0.05

ND

0.18 ± 0.15

0.21 ± 0.15

0.37 ± 0.64

0.50

VLCHP

0.09 ± 0.09

0.14 ± 0.19

0.08 ± 0.06

0.13

LCMP

0.10 ± 0.13

0.10 ± 0.11

0.07 ± 0.05

0.34

HCLP

0.08 ± 0.06

0.10 ± 0.07

0.07 ± 0.05

0.06

CON


Cortisol (nmol•L-1)

HED

1051 ± 878

1049 ± 692

833 ± 353

0.48

0.75

ND

982 ± 556

1039 ± 485

855 ± 366

0.53

VLCHP

921 ± 462

1011 ± 557

954 ± 439b, e

0.37

LCMP

957 ± 405

939 ± 370

914 ± 413b, e

0.79

HCLP

986 ± 447

949 ± 446

945 ± 487b

0.82

CON


Dietary intake is presented as calorie intake: % carbohydrate: protein: fat. All data is presented as group means ± standard deviation for week 0, week 10 and week 14. Individual main effects for time are provided as within-group P-values. Group × time interaction effects are provided as G × T P-values. Between-group significance indicators represent the delta change from baseline at week 14. Significance level was 0.05. NOTE: Insulin, HOMA-IR, leptin, ketones and cortisol were not run on the CON group due to an inability to collect an appropriate numbers of samples. *Different from baseline, P < 0.05, bDifferent from ND, P < 0.05, eDifferent from HED, P < 0.05.

Kerksick et al. Nutrition Journal 2010 9:59   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-59

Open Data