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Nutritional related cardiovascular risk factors in patients with coronary artery disease in IRAN: A case-control study

Reza Amani1*, Mohammad Noorizadeh2, Samira Rahmanian1, Naser Afzali2 and Mohammad H Haghighizadeh3

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Paramedicine, Diabetes Research Centre, Jondi-Shapour University, Ahvaz, Iran

2 Department of Cardiology, Golestan Medical Centre, Jondi-Shapour University, Ahvaz, Iran

3 Department of Statistics, Faculty of Public Health, Jondi-Shapour University, Ahvaz, Iran

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Nutrition Journal 2010, 9:70  doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-70

Published: 26 December 2010

Abstract

Background and aims

There are limited findings available on coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors and nutritional pattern of CAD patients in Iran. The purpose of this study was to compare nutritional-related risk factors of CAD patients with that of matched controls.

Methods

In a case-control design, dietary patterns and CAD risk factors of 108 documented patients (determined by cardiac catheterization showing greater than 70% stenosis or established myocardial infarction) whom were admitted to coronary care units (CCU) of Ahvaz teaching hospitals were compared with that of 108 gender- and age-matched subjects of normal cardiac catheterization (lesser than 40% stenosis). Measured variables consisted of blood lipid profile, smoking habits, dietary patterns, anthropometric indices and blood pressure levels.

Results

Almost all patients had hypertriglyceridemia and high LDL-C levels. Odds ratios (CI 95%) for consuming fish, tea, vegetable oils were 0.55(0.31-0.91), 0.3(0.15-0.65), 0.23(0.13-0.42), respectively. However, consumption of hydrogenated fats, and full-fat yoghurt was associated with higher CAD risk (OR = 2.12(1.23-3.64) and 2.35(1.32-4.18), respectively. Patients' serum lipid profiles, sugar concentrations, and blood pressure levels were significantly higher than defined cut-off points of the known risk factors. Considerable numbers of the control group also showed high levels of the known risk factors.

Conclusions

Consumption of fish, tea and vegetable oils shown to have protective effect on CAD while full fat yoghurt and hydrogenated fats increase the risk of CAD. Moreover, CAD patients obviously have higher blood lipids and sugar concentrations, blood pressure, body fat percent and BMI levels compared with their matched counterparts. We need to define specific local cut-off points with more practical criteria to detect CAD patients.