Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the control, daily supplementation, and twice weekly supplementation groups

Control

Twice weekly

Daily

P1

(n = 110)

(n = 111)

(n = 110)


Age, months

31.1 ± 14.6ª

32.4 ± 14.6

32.0 ± 13.3

0.793

Sex, male [% ]

34.5

46.8

42.7

0.168

Maternal age, year

28.4 ± 6.8

29.5 ± 8.4

29.0 ± 7.1

0.583

Maternal education, year

6.74 ± 3.1

6.38 ± 3.2

6.35 ± 3.6

0.637

Mothers working outside [% ]

93.6

84.7

90.9

0.080

High SES2[%)]

31.8

30.6

31.8

0.976

Household having > 6 members [% ]

49.1

49.5

58.2

0.314

Breastfeed infants[%]

33.6

23.4

20.9

0.074

Commercial baby formula [%]

19.1

13.5

19.1

0.473

Complementary food: Rice [%]

60.9

59.5

58.2

0.473

Meat [%(]

77.3

64.9

61.8

0.034

Egg [%(]

50.0

57.7

53.6

0.521

Haemoglobin concentration, g/L

114.3 ± 15.2

105.1 ± 13.3

107.1 ± 13.0

< 0.001

Anaemia, [% ]

34.5

58.6

53.6

< 0.001

Weight, kg

11.0 ± 2.5

11.3 ± 2.5

11.3 ± 2.5

0.637

Height, cm

84.2 ± 10.6

85.9 ± 10.8

85.6 ± 10.4

0.441

Weight-for-height Z-score

-0.48 ± 1.01

-0.63 ± 1.12

-0.53 ± 0.98

0.544

Height-for-age Z-score

-1.84 ± 1.62

-1.65 ± 1.70

-1.73 ± 1.53

0.677

Weight-for-age Z-score

-1.38 ± 1.13

-1.38 ± 1.16

-1.36 ± 1.10

0.990

Wasting3 [%

4.5

9.9

7.3

0.307

Stunting4 [%]

44.5

42.3

40.4

0.792

Underweight5 [% ]

27.3

30.6

27.3

0.815


aMean ± standard deviations (SD) (all such value, except where indicated otherwise)

1Based on ANOVA (continuous variables) or Chi-square tests (categorical variables)

2 Socio-economic status "high" is defined as household with electricity, improved water source and latrine and "low" is lacking one or all of these.

3Wasting: Percentage below -2 standard deviations (SD) for weight-for-length/height Z-scores based on WHO child growth standard

4Stunting: Percentage below -2 standard deviations (SD) for length/height-for-age Z-scores based on WHO child growth standard

5Underweight: Percentage below -2 standard deviations (SD) for weight-for-age Z-scores based on WHO child growth standard

Kounnavong et al. Nutrition Journal 2011 10:129   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-129

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