Dietary intake in the Personalized Medicine Research Project: a resource for studies of gene-diet interaction
1 Center for Human Genetics, Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, 1000 N. Oak Ave (MLR), Marshfield, WI 54449, USA
2 Biomedical Informatics Research Center, Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, 1000 N. Oak Ave (ML8), Marshfield, WI 54449, USA
3 Epidemiology Research Center, Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, 1000 N. Oak Ave (ML2), Marshfield, WI 54449, USA
Nutrition Journal 2011, 10:13 doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-13Published: 28 January 2011
To describe the dietary intake of participants in the Personalized Medicine Research Project (PMRP), and to quantify differences in nutrient intake by smoking status and APOE4-a genetic marker that has been shown to modify the association between risk factors and outcomes.
The PMRP is a population-based DNA, plasma and serum biobank of more than 20,000 adults aged 18 years and older in central Wisconsin. A questionnaire at enrollment captures demographic information as well as self-reported smoking and alcohol intake. The protocol was amended to include the collection of dietary intake and physical activity via self-reported questionnaires: the National Cancer Institute 124-item Diet History Questionnaire and the Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire. These questionnaires were mailed out to previously enrolled participants. APOE was genotyped in all subjects.
The response rate to the mailed questionnaires was 68.2% for subjects who could still be contacted (alive with known address). Participants ranged in age from 18 to 98 years (mean 54.7) and 61% were female. Dietary intake is variable when comparing gender, age, smoking, and APOE4. Over 50% of females are dietary supplement users; females have higher supplement intake than males, but both have increasing supplement use as age increases. Food energy, total fat, cholesterol, protein, and alcohol intake decreases as both males and females age. Female smokers had higher macronutrient intake, whereas male nonsmokers had higher macronutrient intake. Nonsmokers in both genders use more supplements. In females, nonsmokers and smokers with APOE4 had higher supplement use. In males, nonsmokers with APOE4 had higher supplement use between ages 18-39 only, and lower supplement use at ages above 39. Male smokers with APOE4 had lower supplement use.
Dietary intake in PMRP subjects is relatively consistent with data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Findings suggest a possible correlation between the use of supplements and APOE4. The PMRP dietary data can benefit studies of gene-environment interactions and the development of common diseases.