The effects of varying protein and energy intakes on the growth and body composition of very low birth weight infants
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Nutrition Journal 2011, 10:140 doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-140Published: 29 December 2011
To determine the effects of high dietary protein and energy intake on the growth and body composition of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants.
Thirty-eight VLBW infants whose weights were appropriate for their gestational ages were assessed for when they could tolerate oral intake for all their nutritional needs. Thirty-two infants were included in a longitudinal, randomized clinical trial over an approximate 28-day period. One control diet (standard preterm formula, group A, n = 8, 3.7 g/kg/d of protein and 129 kcal/kg/d) and two high-energy and high-protein diets (group B, n = 12, 4.2 g/kg/d and 150 kcal/kg/d; group C, n = 12, 4.7 g/kg/d and 150 kcal/kg/d) were compared. Differences among groups in anthropometry and body composition (measured with bioelectrical impedance analysis) were determined. An enriched breast milk group (n = 6) served as a descriptive reference group.
Groups B and C displayed greater weight gains and higher increases in fat-free mass than group A.
An intake of 150 kcal/kg/d of energy and 4.2 g/kg/d of protein increases fat-free mass accretion in VLBW infants.