Table 2

Intake of nutrients assessed by WDR, CFFQ and AFFQ for young children and adolescents

Nutrients

Young children (n = 48)

Adolescents (n = 41)



WDR

CFFQ

AFFQ

WDR

CFFQ

AFFQ







Mean

SD

Mean

SD

%

difference

Mean

SD

%

difference

Mean

SD

Mean

SD

%

difference

Mean

SD

%

difference


Energy (kcal/day)

1547

330

1533

438

-1

1757

538

14**

2078

478

1781

588

-14**

2257

643

9

Protein (g/day)

58.2

14.2

57.9

20.4

0

68.5

24.3

18**

75.6

16.9

61.8

24.0

-18**

80.6

24.3

7

Total fat (g/day)

52.8

13.7

51.7

19.1

-2

63.0

24.8

20**

70.2

16.2

54.8

21.9

-22**

74.5

24.3

6

Carbohydrates (g/day)

205.5

49.7

204.8

51.6

0

223.3

57.2

9*

277.6

76.4

255.5

81.9

-8ns

308.5

91.4

11*

Sodium (mg/day)

3004

933

2509

865

-16**

3381

1316

13*

3893

1132

2509

930

-36**

4140

1477

6

Potassium (mg/day)

1924

462

1924

637

0

2365

862

23**

2348

616

2129

1053

-9ns

2897

1114

23**

Calcium (mg/day)

520

160

546

238

5

615

289

18*

540

172

605

479

12ns

702

363

30**

Magnesium (mg/day)

201

56

192

61

-5

236

80

17**

238

64

223

98

-6ns

293

102

23**

Phosphorous (mg/day)

920

225

928

323

1

1074

392

17**

1093

238

1021

488

-7ns

1269

421

16*

Iron (mg/day)

6.3

2.8

5.4

1.8

-13*

7.3

2.5

16*

7.9

2.7

6.1

2.3

-23**

8.8

2.9

11

Zinc (mg/day)

7.1

1.9

7.6

2.5

7

8.3

2.9

17**

9.6

2.5

8.2

3.0

-14**

10.3

3.2

7

Copper (mg/day)

0.93

0.29

0.87

0.25

-6

1.07

0.31

15**

1.16

0.30

1.05

0.36

-10ns

1.35

0.40

16**

Manganese (mg/day)

2.27

0.94

2.34

0.68

3

3.61

1.50

59**

3.02

1.08

2.81

0.89

-7ns

4.24

1.59

40**

Vitamin A (μgRE/day)

490

230

466

174

-5

560

226

14*

602

350

516

280

-14ns

675

274

12

Vitamin D (μg/day)

6.0

4.5

4.9

2.3

-18**

6.2

2.5

3

7.5

4.5

5.8

3.8

-22ns

7.1

2.6

-5

Alpha tocopherol (mg/day)

5.7

1.7

4.9

1.7

-15**

6.9

2.5

20**

7.5

2.4

5.2

1.9

-31**

8.4

2.7

11

Vitamin K (μg/day)

179

134

142

61

-21

190

83

6

223

94

130

71

-42**

221

106

-1

Vitamins B1 (mg/day)

0.79

0.21

0.77

0.26

-2

0.89

0.32

13*

1.00

0.31

0.84

0.35

-16*

1.07

0.33

7

Vitamins B2 (mg/day)

1.04

0.29

1.08

0.41

3

1.40

0.54

35**

1.26

0.33

1.20

0.72

-5ns

1.60

0.66

27**

Niacin (mg/day)

11.3

3.5

11.2

4.4

0

14.3

5.4

27**

14.8

4.0

11.9

4.2

-20**

17.0

5.5

15*

Vitamin B6 (mg/day)

0.91

0.26

0.90

0.33

-1

1.15

0.43

26**

1.20

0.35

1.00

0.40

-17**

1.42

0.49

18*

Vitamin B12 (μg/day)

4.3

3.9

4.8

1.9

12

6.3

2.5

46**

6.5

4.3

5.5

2.5

-15ns

7.3

2.6

12

Folic acid (μg/day)

228

73

215

68

-6

330

122

45**

284

95

220

81

-23**

386

142

36**

Pantothenic acid (mg/day)

5.15

1.38

5.19

1.80

1

6.05

2.17

17**

6.43

1.44

5.89

2.78

-8ns

7.38

2.46

15*

Vitamins C (mg/day)

64

23

60

22

-6

99

38

55**

90

61

78

40

-14ns

132

53

47**

Cholesterol (mg/day)

311

112

280

116

-10

323

126

4

421

119

300

122

-29**

403

147

-4

Dietary fiber (g/day)

11.1

3.3

9.5

3.0

-15**

11.8

4.2

7

13.6

4.5

10.3

3.9

-24**

14.8

4.8

9

Saturated fatty acid (g/day)

17.00

5.00

18.36

7.20

8

21.25

8.97

25**

22.00

6.07

19.53

9.41

-11ns

24.56

9.58

12

Monounsaturated fatty acid (g/day)

19.05

5.28

18.05

6.93

-5

22.14

9.01

16*

26.20

6.39

19.25

7.28

-27**

26.45

8.52

1

Polyunsaturated fatty acid (g/day)

10.41

3.44

9.22

3.23

-11*

12.35

4.68

19*

13.66

3.63

9.58

3.45

-30**

14.82

4.64

8

n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (mg/day)

1.50

0.58

1.43

0.56

-4

1.98

0.76

32**

2.21

0.77

1.55

0.57

-30**

2.39

0.80

8

n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (mg/day)

8.90

3.02

7.78

2.72

-13*

10.34

3.94

16*

11.42

3.09

8.01

2.91

-30**

12.40

3.87

9

Myristic acid (mg/day)

1339

614

1616

780

21**

1882

983

41**

1649

667

1659

1120

1ns

1986

1058

20*

Oleic acid (mg/day)

17609

4901

16503

6302

-6

20310

8257

15*

23808

5865

17614

6704

-26**

24323

7838

2

Linoleic acid (mg/day)

8652

2986

7520

2619

-13*

10027

3814

16*

11080

3049

7741

2820

-30**

12027

3752

9

Alpha-linolenic acid (mg/day)

1082

397

959

342

-11*

1403

563

30**

1509

510

1008

400

-33**

1717

585

14

Arachidonic acid (mg/day)

136

46

136

56

0

158

62

16*

193

49

144

55

-25**

191

67

-1

Icosapentaenoic acid (mg/day)

112

125

138

90

23

167

76

49**

179

147

154

69

-14ns

189

81

5

Docosahexaenoic acid (mg/day)

227

195

243

151

7

301

135

33**

376

266

284

126

-25*

361

143

-4


†: (the second FFQ - WDR)/WDR (%)

‡: The data were transformed by natural log to improve normality

WDR: Weighed dietary record

CFFQ: Food frequency questionnaire for dietary assessment in children

AFFQ: Food frequency questionnaire for dietary assessment in adults

SD: Standard deviation

Paired t test *p < 0.05, **: p < 0.01

Kobayashi et al. Nutrition Journal 2011 10:27   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-27

Open Data