Table 5

Effect of probiotics on acute post exercise cytokine response (factor changes)

Probiotic

group

(mean ×/÷ SD)

Placebo

group

(mean ± SD)

Ratio effect of

probiotic treatment

relative to placebo

(mean; 99% CI)

Qualitative

inference


Males

Anti-inflammatory

IL-1ra

0.84 ×/÷ 2.42

1.39 ×/÷ 1.42

0.60; 0.41 to 0.88

Very Likely ↓

IL-10

0.95 ×/÷ 1.69

1.16 ×/÷ 1.44

0.78: 0.61 to 0.99

Possible ↓

Immuno-regulatory

IL-6

0.92 ×/÷ 2.14

1.22 ×/÷ 2.1

0.75; 0.51 to 1.1

Likely ↓

Pro-inflammatory

IL-8

0.80 ×/÷2.46

0.87 ×/÷ 2.02

0.71; 0.60 to 1.25

Unclear

GM-CSF

0.78 ×/÷ 2.66

1.75 ×/÷ 2.20

0.45; 0.28 to 0.72

Very Likely ↓

IFN-γ

1.2 ×/÷ 2.30

1.49 ×/÷ 2.10

0.81; 0.54 to 1.21

Likely ↓

TNF-α

1.27 ×/÷ 2.02

1.66 ×/÷ 2.22

0.77; 0.51 to 1.14

Likely ↓

Females

Anti-inflammatory

IL-1ra

0.80 ×/÷ 2.44

1.88 ×/÷ 2.16

0.42; 0.23 to 0.78

Very Likely ↓

IL-10

0.89 ×/÷ 1.84

1.45 ×/÷ 2.03

0.61; 0.38 to 1.0

Possible ↓

Immuno-regulatory

IL-6

0.71 ×/÷ 2.93

2.29 ×/÷ 4.8

0.31; 0.11 to 0.84

Likely ↓

Pro-inflammatory

IL-8

0.71 ×/÷ 2.7

1.15 ×/÷ 2.5

0.62; 0.30 to 1.27

Probably ↓

GM-CSF

0.85 ×/÷ 2.75

3.3 ×/÷ 3.9

0.25; 0.10 to 0.64

Very Likely ↓

IFN-γ

1.07 ×/÷ 2.8

1.56 ×/÷ 2.1

0.68; 0.47 to 1.0

Likely ↓

TNF-α

1.15 ×/÷ 2.0

1.72 ×/÷ 1.8

0.67 0.47 to 0.94

likely ↓


SD, factor standard deviation; CI, confidence interval.

Smallest clinically important values for assessing effects qualitatively: ratios, × ÷1.20; differences, ± 0.5.

West et al. Nutrition Journal 2011 10:30   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-30

Open Data