Table 2

Nutrient intake data (mean ± SD, from 3-day food records taken pre-study, and after one-month and two-months ingestion of cereal product (low-, medium, and high fortification) in children

Variable

Pre-study

1-month

2-months

Interaction p-value


Energy (kcal)

Low (N = 23)

2313 ± 785

2164 ± 764

2096 ± 851

0.890

Medium (N = 22)

2246 ± 632

2096 ± 535

2084 ± 564

High (N = 19)

2132 ± 429

2178 ± 577

1952 ± 547

Vit E (α-TE, mg)

Low

4.30 ± 2.36

4.41 ± 3.72

4.24 ± 2.45

<0.001

Medium

4.20 ± 1.84

3.24 ± 1.97

3.63 ± 1.81

High

4.28 ± 1.93

13.3 ± 5.08*

13.6 ± 5.11*

Vit C (mg)

Low

82.3 ± 77.4

68.2 ± 64.6

92.9 ± 89.1

0.002

Medium

79.2 ± 45.8

95.7 ± 86.0

104 ± 95.3

High

90.2 ± 64.1

178 ± 75.2*

176 ± 58.5

Vit A (RE)

Low

265 ± 112

239 ± 128

237 ± 144

<0.001

Medium

289 ± 126

572 ± 147*

583 ± 114*

High

266 ± 117

1727 ± 431*

1657 ± 589*

Thiamin (mg)

Low

1.62 ± 0.73

1.06 ± 0.58

1.15 ± 0.50

<0.001

Medium

1.57 ± 0.66

1.74 ± 0.55*

1.64 ± 0.47*

High

1.48 ± 0.35

1.87 ± 0.85*

1.67 ± 0.51*

Riboflavin (mg)

Low

1.90 ± 0.87

1.47 ± 0.78

1.54 ± 0.72

0.002

Medium

1.90 ± 0.87

2.23 ± 0.80*

2.24 ± 0.77*

High

1.73 ± 0.63

2.23 ± 0.50*

2.14 ± 0.64*

Niacin (mg)

Low

19.4 ± 8.4

15.1 ± 9.3

15.4 ± 8.0

0.011

Medium

19.9 ± 9.3

21.5 ± 7.1*

21.4 ± 6.4*

High

17.9 ± 6.4

23.9 ± 11.8*

21.2 ± 7.8*

Vit B6 (mg)

Low

1.36 ± 0.57

1.06 ± 0.51

1.16 ± 0.62

<0.001

Medium

1.45 ± 0.72

1.82 ± 0.64*

1.88 ± 0.62*

High

1.23 ± 0.48

1.98 ± 0.71*

1.81 ± 0.64*

Vit B12 (mcg)

Low

3.34 ± 1.82

3.30 ± 2.32

2.74 ± 1.43

0.002

Medium

3.80 ± 2.07

5.40 ± 1.79*

5.02 ± 1.70*

High

3.22 ± 1.63

5.37 ± 1.71*

4.97 ± 1.82*

Folate (mcg)

Low

288 ± 143

156 ± 79

185 ± 97

<0.001

Medium

265 ± 121

548 ± 174*

499 ± 167*

High

249 ± 89

513 ± 177*

509 ± 151*

Iron (mg)

Low

16.2 ± 6.6

10.4 ± 3.8

10.5 ± 3.2

<0.001

Medium

16.1 ± 6.8

26.6 ± 6.6*

24.4 ± 7.2*

High

14.0 ± 4.2

25.3 ± 7.4*

24.5 ± 6.1*

Zinc (mg)

Low

9.45 ± 5.72

6.41 ± 3.44

6.75 ± 3.00

<0.001

Medium

9.58 ± 5.87

13.0 ± 4.3*

12.9 ± 3.5*

High

7.77 ± 3.36

19.0 ± 5.7*

19.9 ± 6.2*


* = p < 0.05 compared to the low fortification group.

Nieman et al. Nutrition Journal 2011 10:36   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-36

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