Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients categorized by timing of feeding initiation and break down by illness severity
Characteristic APACHE II <20 APACHE II ≥20
Early Late
(n = 47) (n = 61)
(n = 40) (n = 68)
Early Late Early Late
(n = 14) (n = 33) (n = 26) (n = 35)
Gender (M/F), n M 27 M 53 M 8 M 26 M 19 M 27
F 13 F 15 F 6 F 7 F 7 F 8
Age (y) 72.8 ± 11.1 67.5 ± 15.9* 64.1 ± 13.6 62.3 ± 15.2 77.5 ± 5.5 72.4 ± 15.2
Body mass index (kg/m2) 23.1 ± 4.4 23.5 ± 5.5 25.4 ± 4.6 24.5 ± 6.1 21.8 ± 3.8 22.6 ± 4.8
Diagnosis at ICU admission, n
  Cardiovascular 7 12 2 5 5 7
  Respiratory 20 30 7 15 13 15
  Gastrointestinal 3 9 1 3 2 6
  Neurological 3 10 1 6 2 4
  Sepsis 4 5 1 3 3 2
  Others 3 2 2 1 1 1
Mechanical ventilation, n (%) 40 (100) 68 (100) 14 (100) 33 (100) 26 (100) 35 (100)
Admission to feeding initiation (h) 45.6 ± 7.3 109.4 ± 47.7 *** 48.0 ± 0.0 109.1 ± 46.1 *** 44.3 ± 8.8 109.7 ± 53.4 ***
Enteral feeding route, n
  NG tube feeding 23 35 6 18 17 17
  ND tube feeding 17 33 8 15 9 18
Recommended energy requirement (kcal/d) 1718 ± 174 1757 ± 184 1721 ± 193 1755 ± 172 1715 ± 167 1760 ± 197
Recommended protein requirement (g/d) 69.5 ± 12.4 69.1 ± 12.4 71.4 ± 12.3 70.6 ± 11.6 68.4 ± 12.6 67.7 ± 13.0
APACHE II score at ICU admission 21.4 ± 6.2 20.4 ± 7.1 15.3 ± 3.2 14.6 ± 2.8 24.7 ± 4.8 25.9 ± 5.4
Patients taking prokinetic agents, n (%) 13 (32.5) 23 (33.8) 3 (21.4) 12 (36.4) 10 (38.5) 11 (31.4)
Patients taking PPIs or H2antagonists, n (%) 15 (37.5) 17 (25.0) 4 (28.6) 7 (21.2) 11 (42.3) 10 (28.6)
Patients taking antibiotics, n (%) 39 (97.5) 54 (79.4) ** 14 (100) 26 (78.8)** 25 (96.2) 28 (80)*

APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; ICU, intensive care unit; NG, nasogastric; ND, nasoduodenal; PPI, proton pump inhibitor.

Data are expressed as mean ± SD, number of patients, or percentage in parentheses. Student’s t-test for differences between early and late feeding groups, Mann–Whitney U-test for differences between early and late feeding groups categorized by APACHE II <20 and APACHE II ≥20. Single asterisk (*) indicates p < 0.05, double asterisks (**) indicate p < 0.01, and triple asterisks (***) indicate p < 0.001.

Huang et al.

Huang et al. Nutrition Journal 2012 11:30   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-30

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