Table 2

Differences in measured outcomes between early and late feeding groups and break down by illness severity
Measured outcomes Early Late APACHE II <20 APACHE II ≥20
(n = 40) (n = 68) (n = 47) (n = 61)
Early Late Early Late
(n = 14) (n = 33) (n = 26) (n = 35)
Clinical outcomes
  Frequency of feeding complications (times/d) 0.11 ± 0.18 0.08 ± 0.18 0.05 ± 0.12 0.10 ± 0.24 0.14 ± 0.20 0.05 ± 0.11**
  VAP (%, n) 32.5 (13/40) 13.8 (9/65)* 28.6 (4/14) 9.1 (3/33) 34.6 (9/26) 18.8 (6/32)
  Length of ICU stay (d) 21.1 ± 14.3 15.0 ± 7.7* 16.4 ± 13.3 15.9 ± 9.1 23.6 ± 14.4 14.2 ± 6.0**
  Length of hospital stay (d) 37.0 ± 26.2 33.07 ± 23.1 24.1 ± 17.4 34.8 ± 27.3 43.9 ± 27.8 31.4 ± 18.5
  Hospital mortality (%, n) 45.0 (18/40) 36.8 (25/68) 35.7 (5/14) 18.2 (6/33) 50.0 (13/26) 54.3 (19/35)
Nutritional outcomes
  % of target caloric intake 86.9 ± 21.7 82.2 ± 26.3 85.3 ± 19.5 84.4 ± 24.4 87.8 ± 23.1 80.1 ± 28.2
  % of target protein intake 89.6 ± 26.6 85.7 ± 32.5 84.9 ± 18.7 84.6 ± 28.6 92.1 ± 30.1 86.7 ± 36.1
  Albumin on 7th feeding day (g/L) 20.9 ± 4.8 20.0 ± 5.1 21.4 ± 5.8 21.9 ± 3.8 20.7 ± 4.5 18.2 ± 5.6*
(n = 35) (n = 47) (n = 10) (n = 23) (n = 25) (n = 24)
  Prealbumin on 4th feeding day (mg/dL) 16.3 ± 13.3 14.1 ± 8.3* 16.1 ± 8.6 16.2 ± 7.3 13.3 ± 3.5 12.1 ± 8.8*
(n = 40) (n = 65) (n = 14) (n = 32) (n = 26) (n = 33)
  Prealbumin on 7th feeding day (mg/dL) 15.4 ± 5.4 14.0 ± 7.7 14.9 ± 7.0 16.3 ± 8.5 15.6 ± 4.7 11.9 ± 6.5*
(n = 34) (n = 46) (n = 10) (n = 22) (n = 24) (n = 24)
  NB on 7th feeding day (g/d) −8.0 ± 7.9 −3.7 ± 5.3** −10.2 ± 7.5 −3.6 ± 5.3** −7.1 ± 8.0 −3.7 ± 5.5
(n = 34) (n = 45) (n = 10) (n = 23) (n = 24) (n = 22)
  NB on 14th feeding day (g/d) −6.8 ± 5.9 −1.6 ± 4.6** −5.1 ± 5.7 −2.4 ± 5.4 −7.5 ± 6.0 −0.8 ± 3.8**
(n = 19) (n = 19) (n = 5) (n = 9) (n = 14) (n = 10)
  24-h UUN on 14th feeding day (g/d) 12.8 ± 4.3 8.3 ± 4.9** 12.7 ± 7.0 9.3 ± 5.0 12.8 ± 3.2 7.4 ± 4.8**
(n = 19) (n = 19) (n = 5) (n = 9) (n = 14) (n = 10)
  24-h UUN on 21st feeding day (g/d) 9.5 ± 2.9 5.5 ± 3.0* 12.4 ± 3.9 7.6 ± 1.4 8.6 ± 2.1 2.4 ± 0.2*
(n = 13) (n = 5) (n = 3) (n = 3) (n = 10) (n = 2)

APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; VAP, ventilator-associated pneumonia; ICU, intensive care unit. Data are expressed as mean ± SD, percentage, and number of patients in parentheses. Student’s t-test for differences between early and late feeding groups, and Mann–Whitney U-test for differences between both feeding groups categorized by APACHE II <20 and APACHE II ≥20. Single asterisk (*) indicates p < 0.05, double asterisks (**) indicate p < 0.01.

Huang et al.

Huang et al. Nutrition Journal 2012 11:30   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-30

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