Table 4

Odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals for dental caries according to tertile of maternal intake of dairy products and calcium during pregnancy in 315 children, OMCHS, Japan
Variable Tertile of intake
1 2 3 Pfor trend
Total dairy products
 Intake (g/day)1 82.0 171.0 264.6
 Range −72.8 − 122.2 122.3 − 204.7 204.8 − 582.7
 Risk 31/105 (29.5 %) 21/105 (20.0 %) 22/105 (21.0 %)
 Crude OR (95 % CI) 1.00 0.60 (0.31, 1.12) 0.63 (0.33, 1.18) 0.15
 Adjusted OR (95 % CI)2 1.00 0.58 (0.28, 1.18) 0.51 (0.23, 1.09) 0.08
Milk
 Intake (g/day)1 31.6 123.4 182.7
 Range −82.2 − 80.1 80.2 − 153.8 153.9 − 468.0
 Risk 28/105 (26.7 %) 23/105 (21.9 %) 23/105 (21.9 %)
 Crude OR (95 % CI) 1.00 0.77 (0.41, 1.45) 0.77 (0.41, 1.45) 0.39
 Adjusted OR (95 % CI)2 1.00 0.74 (0.36, 1.49) 0.64 (0.29, 1.37) 0.23
Yogurt
 Intake (g/day)1 7.9 36.6 90.1
 Range −14.3 − 17.8 17.9 − 62.3 62.4 − 167.5
 Risk 29/105 (27.6 %) 25/105 (23.8 %) 20/105 (19.1 %)
 Crude OR (95 % CI) 1.00 0.82 (0.44, 1.52) 0.62 (0.32, 1.17) 0.15
 Adjusted OR (95 % CI)2 1.00 0.97 (0.47, 1.99) 0.51 (0.23, 1.10) 0.07
Cheese
 Intake (g/day)1 0.5 3.5 10.1
 Range −7.7 − 2.1 2.2 − 4.8 4.9 − 90.4
 Risk 37/105 (35.2 %) 22/105 (21.0 %) 15/105 (14.3 %)
 Crude OR (95 % CI) 1.00 0.49 (0.26, 0.90) 0.31 (0.15, 0.59) 0.001
 Adjusted OR (95 % CI)2 1.00 0.56 (0.27, 1.14) 0.37 (0.17, 0.76) 0.01
Calcium
 Intake (mg/day)1 408.1 535.4 690.3
 Range 99.5 − 476.6 476.7 − 607.4 607.5 − 1221.6
 Risk 31/105(29.5 %) 22/105 (21.0 %) 21/105 (20.0 %)
 Crude OR (95 % CI) 1.00 0.63 (0.33, 1.18) 0.60 (0.31, 1.12) 0.12
 Adjusted OR (95 % CI)2 1.00 0.65 (0.31, 1.31) 0.50 (0.23, 1.07) 0.08

1 Values for intake are medians adjusted for energy intake by the residual method for each tertile.

2 Adjusted for maternal age at baseline survey, gestation at baseline, family income, maternal and paternal educational levels, maternal smoking during pregnancy, child’s gender, breastfeeding duration, age at introduction to solid foods, age at first tooth eruption, toothbrushing frequency in children at fourth and fifth surveys, use of fluoride, pattern of dental check-ups, household smoking at fifth survey, age at oral examination, and children’s dairy products intake at fifth survey.

Tanaka et al.

Tanaka et al. Nutrition Journal 2012 11:33   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-33

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