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Open Access Research

Evolution of blood pressure from adolescents to youth in salt sensitivies: a 18-year follow-up study in Hanzhong children cohort

Jianjun Mu12*, Shuhui Zheng1, Qiufang Lian1, Fuqiang Liu1 and Zhiquan Liu1

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian Shaanxi, 710061, P. R. China

2 Dept. of Cardiovascular Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian Shaanxi, 710061, P. R. China

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Nutrition Journal 2012, 11:70  doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-70

Published: 14 September 2012

Abstract

Background

Essential hypertension mostly originates from children. Salt Sensitivity (SS) is regarded as the intermediate phenotype of essential hypertension. The present study investigated the effects of salt-sensitivity on evolution of blood pressure (BP) and development to hypertension from adolescents to youth.

Methods

A baseline survey was carried out in 4,623 adolescents aged 6-15 years old in Hanzhong rural areas in 1987, 310 of whom(mean 9.2 years) were randomly recruited for determination of salt sensitivity using the tests of oral saline load and furosemide sodium-volume depletion. SS was diagnosed in 101 subjects while 209 were determined as non-salt-sensitive (NSS). We made a 18-year followed-up of the cohort in 2005.

Results

The response rate for surviving baseline adolescents was 71.9%. At follow up, BP in youth with baseline SS was higher than that in NSS (SBP:122.9 ± 13.1 VS 117.3 ± 12.4, P < 0.01; DBP: 78.2 ± 10.4 VS 74.7 ± 10.8, P < 0.05). Longitudinal analysis of 18-year BP evolution, subjects in SS had greater Systolic BP change than subjects in NSS(19.6 ± 12.714.7 ± 12.2, P < 0.01). The incidence of hypertension in salt sensitive group was higher than that in NSS group (15.5% VS 6.3%, RR = 2.34, P < 0.05).

Conclusion

Our findings indicate that adolescents with higher BP salt-sensitivity have a higher rate of incident hypertension in youth. Salt sensitivity could be at high risk predisposing to development of hypertension from adolescents to youth.

Keywords:
Blood pressure; Salt sensitivity; Risk factor; Adolescent