Table 1

General demographic and clinical characteristics

Non-consumption

(n = 156)

Low consumption

≤ 1 serving/week

(n = 106)

High consumption

> 1 serving/week

(n = 89)

p


Age

57.32 ± 11.10

54.11 ± 11.76

51.07 ± 11.57

< 0.001


Male (n, %)

93 (59.60)

59 (55.70)

67 (75.30)

0.012


Female (n,%)

63 (40.40)

47(44.30)

22 (24.70)

-


Diabetes (n, %)

58 (37.20)

23 (21.70)

8 (9.00)

< 0.001


Hypertension (n, %)

126 (80.77)

83 (53.21)

64 (41.03)

0.273


Obesity (BMI > 30) (n, %)

58 (37.20)

36 (34.00)

20 (22.50)

0.057


Dyslipidemia (n, %)

109 (69.90)

84 (79.20)

75 (84.30)

0.034


Smoking (n, %)

35 (22.40)

27 (25.50)

23 (25.80)

0.783


Antihypertensive drugs (n, %)

84 (53.80)

48 (45.30)

33 (37.10)

0.037


Lipid lowering drugs (n, %)

59 (37.80)

27 (25.50)

14 (15.70)

0.001


BMI (Kg/m2)

28.78 ± 4.61

28.46 ± 4.31

27.50 ± 3.74

0.082


Waist circumference (cm.)

98.21 ± 12.74

96.83 ± 11.44

95.93 ± 11.74

0.342


Serum glucose (mg/dL)

106.12 ± 36.32

95.42 ± 25.89

89.52 ± 15.74

< 0.001


Total cholesterol (mg/dL)

200.29 ± 40.16

205.41 ± 35.33

206.07 ± 34.59

0.400


Cardiovascular risk (Score)

5.08 ± 6.12

4.16 ± 7.06

2.82 ± 4.39

0.020


Cardiovascular risk (D'Agostino)

22.15 ± 15.60

18.68 ± 18.12

16.23 ± 13.66

0.017


Office SBP (mmHg)

138.81 ± 17.17

138.78 ± 17.86

140.12 ± 16.62

0.822


Office DBP (mmHg)

85.89 ± 10.74

87.09 ± 10.39

87.87 ± 11.27

0.357


Peripheral pulse pressure (mmHg)

52.91 ± 13.00

51.68 ± 13.01

52.24 ± 11.45

0.736


Central SBP (mmHg)

131.66 ± 18.35

130.58 ± 17.26

132.17 ± 19.09

0.820


Central DBP (mmHg)

87.87 ± 11.50

88.05 ± 10.78

89.49 ± 11.73

0.534


Central Pulse pressure (mmHg)

43.78 ± 14.12

42.53 ± 11.54

42.67 ± 12.76

0.696


24 h SBP (mmHg)

124.12 ± 12.48

125.73 ± 12.64

127.78 ± 12.39

0.087


24 h DBP (mmHg)

75.51 ± 9.52

77.47 ± 9.91

79.20 ± 9.35

0.014


24 h Pulse pressure (mmHg)

48.60 ± 9.70

48.26 ± 9.12

48.58 ± 9.26

0.955


PWV (m/s)

9.22 ± 2.15

8.93 ± 2.41

8.47 ± 1.96

0.039


C-IMT mean (mm.)

0.74 ± 0.10

0.72 ± 0.11

0.71 ± 0.13

0.109


C-IMT maximum (mm.)

0.91 ± 0.12

0.89 ± 0.13

0.88 ± 0.16

0.100


CAIx

30.24 ± 11.25

30.84 ± 11.34

28.81 ± 11.11

0.439


PAIx

94.74 ± 22.91

92.03 ± 17.95

88.43 ± 21.39

0.085


AASI

0.38 ± 0.06

0.37 ± 0.05

0.37 ± 0.05

0.331


Day AASI

0.38 ± 0.06

0.37 ± 0.05

0.37 ± 0.05

0.363


Night AASI

0.39 ± 0.14

0.37 ± 0.16

0.39 ± 0.16

0.786


ABI

1.07 ± 0.10

1.08 ± 0.11

1.08 ± 0.09

0.791


Total energy (Kcal/day)

2312.80 ± 691.41

2487.15 ± 660.39

2907.62 ± 777.29

< 0.001


Carbohydrates (g/day)

259.47 ± 95.26

269.97 ± 82.01

323.36 ± 99.28

< 0.001


Protein (g/day)

101.87 ± 32.40

108.73 ± 30.33

113.29 ± 28.44

0.016


Total fat (g/day)

87.35 ± 31.93

99.60 ± 36.93

120.11 ± 37.92

< 0.001


BMI: Body mass index, SBP: Systolic blood pressure, DBP: Diastolic blood pressure, IMT: Intima-media thickness, PWV: Pulse wave velocity, C-IMT: Carotid intima-media thickness, CAIx: Central augmentation index, PAIx: Peripheral augmentation index, AASI: Ambulatory arterial stiffness index, ABI: ankle-brachial index

Data for qualitative variables are expressed as n (%) and quantitative variables as mean ± standard deviation

p: statistically significant differences (p < 0.05)

Recio-Rodríguez et al. Nutrition Journal 2012 11:8   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-8

Open Data