The relationship between baseline nutritional status with subsequent parenteral nutrition and clinical outcomes in cancer patients undergoing hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy
1 Cancer Treatment Centers of America® (CTCA) at Midwestern Regional Medical Center, 2520 Elisha Avenue, Zion, IL 60099, USA
2 Cancer Treatment Centers of America®, 1336 Basswood Road, Schaumburg, IL 60173, USA
Nutrition Journal 2013, 12:118 doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-118Published: 14 August 2013
The combination of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is a promising treatment option for selected patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. This retrospective study investigated the relationship between baseline nutritional assessment with subsequent parenteral nutritional (PN) and clinical outcomes in cancer patients undergoing CRS and HIPEC.
A consecutive series of 60 patients undergoing CRS and HIPEC at our institution between January 2009 and May 2011. Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) was used to assess nutritional status. Patients were classified preoperatively as: well nourished (SGA-A), mildly-moderately malnourished (SGA-B), and severely malnourished (SGA-C). For PN, patients were divided into 2 groups: those who received PN (PN+) and those who did not receive PN (PN-). The primary outcomes of interest were length of stay (LOS), postoperative complications, ECOG performance status (PS) and survival. LOS was calculated as the number of days in the hospital post surgery. Performance status was measured on a scale of 0-4. Survival was calculated from the date of first visit to the date of death/last contact.
Of 60 patients, 19 were males and 41 females. The mean age at presentation was 50.3 years. The most common cancer types were colorectal (n = 24) and gynecologic (n = 19) with the majority of patients (n = 47) treated previously before coming to our institution. 33 patients were SGA-A, 22 SGA-B and 5 SGA-C prior to surgery. Of a total of 60 patients, 31 received PN. Mean LOS for the entire cohort was 16.2 days (SD = 9.8). Mean LOS for preoperative SGA-A, SGA-B and SGA-C were 15.0, 15.2 and 27.8 days respectively (ANOVA p = 0.02). Overall incidence of complications was 26.7% (16/60). Complications were recorded in 9 of 33 (27.3%) preoperative SGA-A patients and 7 of 27 (25.9%) SGA-B + C patients (p = 0.91). The median overall survival was 17.5 months (95% CI = 13.0 to 22.1 months). Median survival for preoperative SGA-A and SGA-B + C cohorts was 22.4 and 10.4 months respectively (p = 0.006).
The preoperative SGA predicts LOS and survival in cancer patients undergoing HIPEC. Future randomized clinical trials in this patient population should investigate the systematic provision of PN to all malnourished patients in the preoperative period for a minimum of 7-10 days with the continuation of PN in the postoperative period.