Table 3

Diet items that were differentially associated with toenail arsenic depending on household water arsenic
Tap water arsenic <1 μg/L Tap water arsenic ≥ 1 μg/L
Category Food

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± SE 2
P partial R2 %Change from 5th to 95th percentile consumers1

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± SE
P partial R2 % Change from 5th to 95th percentile consumers1
Males Females Males Females
Meats Hot dogs (beef or pork) -0.457 ± 0.192 0.018 0.8% -18.2 -6.5 0.564 ± 0.356 0.115 1.1% 34.7 10.5
Grains Cooked oatmeal or cooked oat bran (1 cup) 0.085 ± 0.099 0.394 0.8% 1.4 2.6 0.539 ± 0.178 0.003 3.2% 18.2 35.8
Vegetables Beans or lentils, baked, dried, or soup (1/2 cup) 0.194 ± 0.201 0.335 0.6% 6.6 6.6 1.144 ± 0.398 0.005 2.6% 30.0 30.0
Beverages Liquor, e.g., whiskey, gin, vodka (1 drink or shot) 0.080 ± 0.034 0.019 1.5% 11.7 4.5 -0.119 ± 0.078 0.126 -0.3% -16.3 -6.9

Legend: Model results for the diet items for which the associations with ln-transformed toenail arsenic concentration, adjusted for tap water arsenic concentrations and potential confounders, depended on whether the household tap water arsenic concentration was above or below 1 μg/L. Sample sizes ranged from n = 627-648 for tap water arsenic <1 μg/L and n = 194-195 for tap water arsenic ≥ 1 μg/L.

1These columns summarize the percent change in predicted toenail arsenic concentration from 5th to 95th percentile consumers for males and for females; gender is included since males and females consumed some diet items (e.g., beer, wine) differently.

Cottingham et al.

Cottingham et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:149   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-149

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