Effect of food fortification on 25(OH)D concentrations and risk considerations. A. Modeled effect of vitamin D food fortification on 25(OH)D concentrations. Portrayed is only the scenario of individuals with mean intake of vitamin D and the carrier product. The x-axis depicts varying fortification levels throughout the year, while the y-axis shows resulting 25(OH)D levels due to intake of vitamin D fortified food. The dotted line shows the effect of food fortification when aiming to level 25(OH)D concentrations at a certain value and the solid line shows 25(OH)D concentrations without food fortification. The left graph shows the 75 nmol/L goal, while the right graphs shows the 50 nmol/L goal. B. Effect of fortification on people with extreme dietary intake of vitamin D and the carrier product. Driving factors for these extreme estimates are high vitamin D intake (95th percentile) and high fortified foodstuff consumption (95th percentile) for the UL as well as low vitamin D intake (5th percentile) and low fortified foodstuff consumption (5th percentile) for the lower limit. Here, fortification levels are based on average carrier intake. The x- and y-axis are defined as in part A. The dotted line belongs to individuals who tend to reach a 25(OH)D concentration of 50 nmol/L and the solid line belongs to the 75 nmol/L goal. The three columns represent risk assessment for bread, milk, and juice. C. Comparison of effects of different vitamin D fortified carrier intake on vitamin D intake. Bars show, how much more vitamin D an individual from a certain carrier intake percentile would invest in comparison to another individual. Compared here are low (5th percentile) with mean and high (95th percentile) carrier intake. The x-axis shows different carrier products, while the y-axis represents multiplication factor of vitamin D intake due to vitamin D fortified food.
Brown et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:151 doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-151