Table 1

Basic characteristics of 2108 elderly Japanese women categorized with and without frailty
Total (n = 2108) No frailty* (n = 1627) Frailty* (n = 481) P
Mean ± SD or n (%)
Frailty status*, n (%)
   No frailty 1627 (77.2) - - -
   Frailty 481 (22.8) - - -
Frailty criteria, n (%)
   Slowness and weakness 710 (33.7) 234 (14.4) 476 (99.0) -
   Exhaustion 540 (25.6) 205 (12.6) 335 (69.8) -
   Low physical activity 528 (25.1) 228 (14.0) 300 (62.4) -
   Unintentional weight loss 112 (5.3) 50 (3.1) 62 (12.9) -
Age, years 74.7 ± 5.0 73.9 ± 4.6 77.3 ± 5.3 <0.0001
Body height, cm 150.4 ± 5.5 150.7 ± 5.2 149.1 ± 6.1 <0.0001
Body weight, kg 51.4 ± 7.8 51.4 ± 7.4 51.5 ± 9.2 0.96
Body mass index, kg/m2 22.7 ± 3.2 22.6 ± 3.0 23.1 ± 3.6 <0.0001
Survey year, n (%) 0.27
   2011 1342 (63.7) 1046 (64.3) 296 (61.5)
   2012 766 (36.3) 581 (35.7) 185 (38.5)
Residential block, n (%) 0.38
   Hokkaido and Tohoku 193 (9.2) 142 (8.7) 51 (10.6)
   Kanto 526 (25.0) 404 (24.8) 122 (25.4)
   Hokuriku and Tokai 510 (24.2) 410 (25.2) 100 (20.8)
   Kinki 262 (12.4) 199 (12.2) 63 (13.1)
   Chugoku and Shikoku 342 (16.2) 265 (16.3) 77 (16.0)
   Kyushu 275 (13.1) 207 (12.7) 68 (14.1)
Size of residential area, n (%) 0.26
   City with a population ≥1 million 274 (13.0) 204 (12.5) 70 (14.6)
   City with a population <1 million 1598 (75.8) 1247 (76.6) 351 (73.0)
   Town and village 236 (11.2) 176 (10.8) 60 (12.5)
Living alone, n (%) 0.30
   No 1759 (83.4) 1365 (83.9) 394 (81.9)
   Yes 349 (16.6) 262 (16.1) 87 (18.1)
Marital status, n (%) <0.0001
   Single 4 (0.2) 3 (0.2) 1 (0.2)
   Married 1275 (60.5) 1035 (63.6) 240 (49.9)
   Widowed 777 (36.9) 546 (33.6) 231 (48.0)
   Separated 52 (2.5) 43 (2.6) 9 (1.9)
Education, n (%) 0.04
   ≤Junior high school and others 977 (46.4) 732 (45.0) 245 (50.9)
   High school 933 (44.3) 733 (45.1) 200 (41.6)
   ≥Some college 198 (9.4) 162 (10.0) 36 (7.5)
Current smoking, n (%) 0.002
   No 2054 (97.4) 1595 (98.0) 459 (95.4)
   Yes 54 (2.6) 32 (2.0) 22 (4.6)
Alcohol drinking, n (%) <0.0001
   No 1695 (80.4) 1278 (78.6) 417 (86.7)
   Yes 413 (19.6) 349 (21.5) 64 (13.3)
Dietary supplement use, n (%) 0.0002
   No 1475 (70.0) 1106 (68.0) 369 (76.7)
   Yes 633 (30.0) 521 (32.0) 112 (23.3)
Physical activity, total metabolic equivalents-hours/d 39.0 ± 6.6 40.4 ± 6.3 34.4 ± 5.2 <0.0001
History of chronic disease‡, n (%) <0.0001
   No 1059 (50.2) 864 (53.1) 195 (40.5)
   Yes 1049 (49.8) 763 (46.9) 286 (59.5)
Depression symptoms§, n (%) <0.0001
   No 1617 (76.7) 1363 (83.8) 254 (52.8)
   Yes 491 (23.3) 264 (16.2) 227 (47.2)
Energy intake, kcal/d 1737 ± 475 1767 ± 473 1636 ± 465 <0.0001
Macronutrient intake||
   Total protein, g/d 74.0 ± 14.3 74.6 ± 14.5 72.0 ± 13.2 0.0003
   Animal protein¶, g/d 43.5 ± 15.5 44.0 ± 15.6 41.9 ± 14.9 0.009
   Plant protein**, g/d 30.5 ± 4.4 30.6 ± 4.4 30.1 ± 4.6 0.03
   Fat, g/d 50.1 ± 9.6 50.3 ± 9.7 49.3 ± 9.2 0.04
   Carbohydrate, g/d 241 ± 32 240 ± 32 245 ± 30 0.005
Amino acid intake||
   Essential amino acids, g/d 28.8 ± 6.16 29.0 ± 6.25 28.1 ± 5.77 0.001
   Branched chain amino acids, g/d 12.5 ± 2.49 12.6 ± 2.54 12.2 ± 2.32 0.001
   Leucine, g/d 5.64 ± 1.12 5.68 ± 1.14 5.50 ± 1.04 0.001
   Isoleucine, g/d 3.17 ± 0.65 3.19 ± 0.66 3.08 ± 0.61 0.001
   Valine, g/d 3.72 ± 0.72 3.75 ± 0.74 3.63 ± 0.67 0.001
   Sulfur amino acids, g/d 2.83 ± 0.55 2.85 ± 0.56 2.77 ± 0.51 0.003
   Methionine, g/d 1.76 ± 0.40 1.77 ± 0.40 1.71 ± 0.38 0.01
   Cysteine, g/d 1.08 ± 0.15 1.09 ± 0.16 1.07 ± 0.14 0.0007

SD, standard deviation.

*Frailty score (0-5) was defined as the sum of poor physical function (two points), exhaustion (one point), low physical activity (one point), and unintentional weight loss (one point). A score of ≥3 was classified as indicating frailty.

†Means for continuous values were compared by Student’s t test and proportions for categorical values were compared by the chi-square test.

‡History of chronic disease was defined as having had any of the following self-reported diseases: stroke, myocardial infarction, hypertension, diabetes, or chronic rheumatism.

§Depression symptoms were defined as a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression score ≥16.

||Nutrient intakes were energy-adjusted according to the residual method.

¶Protein from the following four food groups were included in animal protein: fish and shellfish, meat, eggs, and dairy products.

**Protein from the following eight food groups were included in plant protein: cereals, pulses, potatoes, confectionaries, fruits, vegetables, alcoholic beverages, and non-alcoholic beverages.

Kobayashi et al.

Kobayashi et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:164   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-164

Open Data