Table 7

Maternal dietary intake of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamines and limb deficiency defects in offspring
Unadjusted odds ratios (95% CI) Adjusted odds ratios** (95% CI)
Limb deficiency defect Quartile 1 vs Quartile 2 Quartile 1 vs Quartile 3 Quartile 1 vs Quartile 4 Quartile 1 vs Quartile 2 Quartile 1 vs Quartile 3 Quartile 1 vs Quartile 4
Nitrate
Longitudinal 0.75 (0.52-1.07) 0.79 (0.55-1.13) 0.78 (0.55-1.11) 0.74 (0.51-1.06) 0.82 (0.56-1.19) 0.79 (0.52-1.20)
Transverse 1.07 (0.80-1.43) 0.97 (0.72-1.30) 0.80 (0.59-1.09) 1.02 (0.76-1.36) 0.91 (0.66-1.24) 0.73 (0.51-1.04)
Intercalary 0.70 (0.27-1.84) 0.70 (0.27-1.84) 1.00 (0.42-2.41) 0.76 (0.28-2.06) 0.90 (0.31-2.60) 1.40 (0.48-4.10)
Preaxial* 0.69 (0.43-1.10) 0.71 (0.45-1.12) 0.69 (0.43-1.10) 0.67 (0.42-1.07) 0.72 (0.44-1.18) 0.65 (0.37-1.13)
Nitrite
Longitudinal 0.67 (0.46-0.98) 0.77 (0.53-1.10) 0.93 (0.66-1.31) 0.69 (0.48-1.01) 0.75 (0.51-1.12) 0.95 (0.59-1.52)
Transverse 1.08 (0.81-1.45) 0.94 (0.70-1.28) 1.04 (0.77-1.39) 1.10 (0.82-1.48) 0.91 (0.65-1.27) 0.95 (0.63-1.42)
Intercalary 1.79 (0.60-5.36) 1.41 (0.45-4.46) 2.61 (0.93-7.33) 2.29 (0.74-7.07) 1.92 (0.56-6.59) 4.70 (1.23-17.93)
Preaxial* 0.80 (0.50-1.28) 0.78 (0.49-1.26) 0.90 (0.57-1.42) 0.74 (0.46-1.20) 0.65 (0.39-1.09) 0.64 (0.34-1.20)
Animal Nitrite
Longitudinal 0.87 (0.60-1.25) 0.99 (0.69-1.41) 0.89 (0.62-1.28) 0.91 (0.63-1.31) 0.95 (0.65-1.38) 0.83 (0.53-1.29)
Transverse 0.91 (0.67-1.22) 0.93 (0.69-1.25) 0.99 (0.74-1.33) 1.01 (0.75-1.37) 0.98 (0.72-1.34) 1.13 (0.79-1.61)
Intercalary 1.41 (0.45-4.47) 1.84 (0.61-5.49) 2.63 (0.94-7.41) 1.56 (0.48-5.01) 1.94 (0.61-6.15) 2.73 (0.80-9.37)
Preaxial* 0.96 (0.60-1.53) 0.97 (0.60-1.54) 0.93 (0.58-1.49) 0.96 (0.60-1.53) 0.84 (0.51-1.38) 0.69 (0.39-1.23)
Plant Nitrite
Longitudinal 0.96 (0.67-1.37) 0.87 (0.60-1.26) 0.97 (0.68-1.39) 1.00 (0.69-1.44) 0.91 (0.60-1.38) 1.06 (0.64-1.74)
Transverse 0.87 (0.64-1.17) 0.81 (0.60-1.10) 1.08 (0.81-1.43) 0.88 (0.65-1.20) 0.82 (0.58-1.14) 0.92 (0.61-1.38)
Intercalary 1.11 (0.43-2.89) 1.25 (0.49-3.16) 0.87 (0.31-2.39) 1.36 (0.50-3.70) 1.81 (0.62-5.28) 1.61 (0.40-6.47)
Preaxial* 1.05 (0.66-1.66) 0.89 (0.55-1.43) 0.96 (0.60-1.54) 1.09 (0.67-1.75) 0.91 (0.53-1.55) 0.90 (0.47-1.73)
Nitrosamine
Longitudinal 0.95 (0.67-1.37) 0.88 (0.61-1.27) 1.01 (0.71-1.45) 0.99 (0.68-1.42) 0.86 (0.58-1.29) 1.03 (0.65-1.61)
Transverse 1.01 (0.76-1.36) 0.95 (0.71-1.28) 0.92 (0.68-1.24) 1.02 (0.76-1.38) 0.96 (0.70-1.33) 1.00 (0.69-1.46)
Intercalary 2.26 (0.69-7.34) 2.76 (0.88-8.70) 2.57 (0.80-8.20) 2.50 (0.74-8.40) 3.05 (0.88-10.56) 2.75 (0.68-11.08)
Preaxial* 0.80 (0.50-1.28) 0.83 (0.52-1.32) 0.90 (0.57-1.42) 0.83 (0.52-1.34) 0.76 (0.45-1.28) 0.77 (0.43-1.40)

* Subcategory of longitudinal limb deficiency.

** Logistic regression models adjusted for energy intake, maternal race/ethnicity, maternal education, dietary folate intake, dietary fat intake, and study center.

Huber et al.

Huber et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:34   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-34

Open Data