Table 1

Acute effects of the amount of dietary fats on inflammatory response in obese or overweight individuals
Subjects: n (F/M) Postprandial duration Test meal Inflammatory response in overweight/obese individuals Remarks References
Lean: 10 (-/10) Obese: 10 (-/10) T2DM: 10 (-/10) 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 h

HFM: 57.5 g fat (29 g SFA)

A bacon and egg muffin, 2 hash browns, caramel flavored milk drink (250 ml of 4% fat milk, 4 teaspoons skim milk powder and 1 teaspoon caramel flavor)

IL-6, hsCRP: HFM ↑ over time; NS

TNF-α: =; NS

Total adiponectin: HFM ↑ over time; NS

HMW adiponectin: =; NS

Sample size was calculated based on the changes of adiponectin, but not other markers [62]
Water (control) Small sample size
Lean: 14 (14/-); obese: 15 (15/-) 0, 1, 4, 6 h

SFA: 71 g fat (18 g palmitate)

Instant potato with 16 g cream/kg body weight, 100 ml hot water

IL-6: ↓ at 1 h, ↑ at 6 h; NS

IL-8, TNF-α: =; NS

Timing of menstrual cycle and oral contraceptive usage were not taken into account [16]

MUFA: 72 g fat (9 g palmitate )

Instant potato with 0.6 g/kg body weight of olive oil, 160 ml hot water

Subjects with hypertension and dyslipidemia were included

n-6 PUFA:72 g fat (5 g palmitate)

Instant potato with 0.6 g/kg body weight of canola oil, 160 ml hot water

Test meals were not iso-caloric

Small sample size.

LFM–potato: 12 g fat (3 g palmitate)

Instant potato, 160 ml hot water.

LFM – bran: 13 g fat (3 g palmitate)

All-Bran, 40 ml trim milk, and 2 cooked eggs

*test meals for obese subjects only
Obese: 38 (-/38) 0, 4, 8 h

60 g fat/m2 body surface

Eggs, cheese, toast, peanut 7, whipped cream, peaches and milk

IL-6: ↑ at 6 h

TNF-α: ↓ at 4 h

Control not included [63]
Overweight: 15 (2/13) 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 h

82 g fat (36.9 g SFA)

Fried potatoes, fried eggs, Emmenthal cheese, Italian rose-shaped dinner rolls, with 500 ml of low sugar content beverage

IL-6, TNF-α: ↑ over time

Small sample size

Control not included

Short postprandial period

[64]
Lean: 10 (5/5); Obese: 8 (5/3) 0, 1, 2, 3 h

HFM, 60 g fat

Big Mac, large French fries, a large Coke, and apple pie

ROS generation and NF-κB binding : ↑ over time

Small sample size

Short postprandial period

Control not included

[15]

HFM, high fat meal; LFM, low fat meal; SFA, saturated fats; MUFA, monounsaturated fats; PUFA, polyunsaturated fats; % en, percentage energy; IL, interleukin; hsCRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor- alpha; sICAM-1, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1; sVCAM-1, soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1; HMW, high molecular weight; AUC, area under the curve; ROS, reactive oxygen species; NF-κB, nuclear factor kappa-β; ↓, reduced postprandial concentrations; ↑, increased postprandial concentrations; =, no postprandial/after meal effect; ↑↑, higher postprandial increment compared to other meals; NS, no significant difference between meals.

Teng et al.

Teng et al. Nutrition Journal 2014 13:12   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-13-12

Open Data