Table 2

Demographic, clinical and nutrition management in patients with type 1 diabetes according to adherence to the prescribed diet
Variable Adherence * P-value
Yes (%) No (%)
N 1,722 (54.2) 1,458 (45.8) -
Demographic and social data
Age 22.1 ± 12.3 21.8 ± 11.0 0.5
Age range, y, n (%) <0.001
0-12,9 415 (24.1) 251 (17.2)
13-18,9 374 (21.7) 430 (29.9)
≥19 933 (54.2) 822 (53.3)
Age at diagnosis of diabetes 11.6 ± 8.3 11.6 ± 7.7 0.5
Female, n (%) 962 (55.9) 829 (56.9) 0.4
Duration of diabetes 10.4 ± 8.3 10.2 ± 7.7 0.9
Ethnicity**
  Caucasian 1,032 (59.9) 792 (43.4) 0.001
  Non-caucasian 690 (50.9) 666 (49.1)
Economic status, n (%)*** 0.08
  High 134 (8.1) 95 (6.6)
  Medium 397 (23.9) 313 (21.9)
  Low 570 (34.3) 482 (33.7)
  Very Low 563 (33.8) 539 (37.7)
Geographical region 0.5
  North/Northeast 525 (30.5) 413 (28.3)
  Southeast 703 (40.8) 607 (41.6)
  South 389 (22.6) 338 (23.2)
  Midwest 105 (6.1) 100 (6.9)
Medical nutrition therapy
Appointment with dietitian, y (%) 1,288 (75.0) 979 (43.2) <0.001
Diet prescriptor 0.07
  Dietitian 1,188 (56.4) 918 (43.6)
  Endocrinologist 435 (52.8) 389 (47.2)
Difficulties to follow the prescribed diet, y(%)
  Avoiding sugar and sweets 620 (36.0) 743 (51.0) <0.001
  Eating vegetables and fruits 308 (17.9) 339 (23.3) <0.001
  Quantity of prescribed foods 811 (47.1) 971 (66.6) <0.001
  Schedule time of the meals 778 (45.2) 881 (60.4) <0.001
  Understanding foods substitution lists 350 (20.4) 476 (32.7) <0.001
Glycemic control
HbA1c (%) 8.8 ± 2.1 9.9 ± 2.4 <0.001
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 73.5 ± 23.5 84.3 ± 26.8
HbA1c at goal, n (%) ## 317 (21.1) 145 (11.5) <0.001
HbA1c ≥ 9.0%, n (%)### 740 (43.0) 799 (47.2) 0.2
Hospitalization, y (%) # 176 (48.2) 185 (51.2) 0.03
Severe hypoglycemia, y (%) 179 (16.09) 141 (16.9) 0.5
SMBG **** y, (%) 1,377 (91.6) 1,106 (87.5) <0.001
SMBG (n) 3.5 ± 1.7 3.1 ± 1.6 <0.001
Number of medical clinical visits (previous year) 4.3 ± 1.6 3.9 ± 1.7 0.001
Cardiovascular risk factors
BMI 21.6 ± 4.2 22.8 ± 4.3 0.001
Overweight or obesity, n (%)#### 446 (29.8) 437 (34.7) 0.005
sBP (mmHg) 111.7 ± 17.5 112.2 ± 16.7 0.4
dBP (mmHg) 71.3 ± 11.4 72.4 ± 11.4 0.01
Cholesterol (mg/dl) 167.1 ± 39.6 174.7 ± 43.3 <0.001
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 85.9 ± 59.4 99.3 ± 78.5 <0.001
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) 53.5 ± 14.8 52.3 ± 14.4 0.04
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) 97.2 ± 31.8 103.3 ± 34.4 <0.001
Non-HDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) 113.4 ± 36.4 122.4 ± 42.6 <0.001
Current smoker, y (%) 56 (3.3) 81 (5.6) <0.001

*The data are presented as number (percentage) or mean ± SD.

**African-Brazilian, Mulatto, Asian, or Native Indian.

***Missing data: 87 patients.

****SMBG: self monitoring blood glucose.

#Hospitalization for hyperglycemia or ketoacidosis.

## HbA1c at goal was defined as: as HbA1c levels of < 58 mmol/mol (7.5%) for T1D patients between 13 and 19 years old; < 64 mmol/mol (8%) for patients between 6 and 12 years old; between 58 mmol/mol (7.5%) and 69 mmol/mol (8.5%) for patients < 6 years old; and <53 mmol/mol (7%) for adult T1D patients.

###HbA1c levels higher than 75 mmol/mol (9%) was defined as poor glycemic control.

####Overweight and obesity were considered together.

Davison et al.

Davison et al. Nutrition Journal 2014 13:19   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-13-19

Open Data