Effects of whole grain rye crisp bread for breakfast on appetite and energy intake in a subsequent meal: two randomised controlled trails with different amounts of test foods and breakfast energy content
1 Department of Food Science, BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Box 7051, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden
2 Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Insitutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Nutrition Journal 2014, 13:26 doi:10.1186/1475-2891-13-26Published: 25 March 2014
Fibre-rich rye products have been shown to have superior effects on self-reported appetite compared to white wheat bread and some studies have shown lower energy intake after subsequent meal. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of whole grain rye crisp bread (RB) versus refined wheat bread (WB) on appetite in two studies using different portion sizes and total energy intakes.
Two randomised cross-over pre-load studies were conducted in 20 and 21 subjects, respectively. Appetite was rated by visual analogue scale (VAS) for 4 h. In both studies, participants were 39 ± 14 years old and had BMI 23 ± 3. The studies differed in terms of energy content of the breakfasts and proportion of energy from the treatment product as well as amount of test products. Differences between treatments within the two studies were evaluated using mixed models with repeated measures appropriate for cross-over designs.
In Study one, hunger and desire to eat were significantly lower (P < 0.05) after RB compared with WB, but there were no difference for fullness or difference in energy intake at lunch served ad libitum. In Study two, the portion size was lower than in Study one and the test product constituted a larger proportion of the breakfast. Fullness was significantly higher after RB compared with WB (P < 0.05) and hunger, desire to eat as well as energy intake at lunch were significantly lower (P < 0.05).
Whole grain rye crisp bread caused lower self-reported hunger, higher fullness and less desire to eat compared to refined wheat bread. It also led to a lower energy intake after an ad libitum lunch. Results were stronger and/or more consistent when the test meal portion was smaller and accounted for a larger proportion of the total energy intake of the breakfast.