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Open Access Research

Effect of smoking on vitamin A, vitamin E, and other trace elements in patients with cardiovascular disease in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study

Sam K Bashar1 and Amal K Mitra2*

Author affiliations

1 North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

2 Department of Community Health Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS, USA

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Citation and License

Nutrition Journal 2004, 3:18  doi:10.1186/1475-2891-3-18

Published: 5 October 2004

Abstract

Background

Data regarding the impact of cigarette smoking on trace elements are scarce and inconsistent. In this study, we evaluated the effect of smoking on serum concentrations of trace elements among adult males with heart disease.

Methods

This cross-sectional study included 100 adults hospitalized with heart disease in Bangladesh. The major variables of interest included mean serum concentrations of trace elements and proportion of subjects with bacterial growth on throat swab culture.

Results

Smokers had significantly lower serum concentrations of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, selenium, and zinc and increased concentrations of copper. Throat swab cultures were more often positive for Streptococcus β-hemolyticus in smokers than controls.

Conclusions

Smoking decreases serum concentrations of trace elements. Smoking control programs are needed in Bangladesh to improve health and nutrition of the people who are already nutritionally deficient.