Table 5

Risk of suboptimal or elevated serum biomarker concentrations and elevated blood pressure by supplement user group.

Outcome

Cases: n/(%)

OR*

95% CI*


Homocysteine (>9 μmol/L)

Multiple Supp users

30/(10.9)

0.11

0.06–0.19

Single Supp users

69/(37.0)

0.53

0.34–0.83

No Supp users

282/(45.3)

1.00

C-reactive protein (>0.3 mg/dL)

Multiple Supp users

0/(0.00)

Single Supp users

51/(30.6)

0.66

0.40–1.09

No Supp users

230/(41.3)

1.00

Total cholesterol (>200 mg/dL)

Multiple Supp users

145/(52.5)

0.78

0.56–1.09

Single Supp users

89/(57.8)

1.08

0.72–1.62

No Supp users

291/(54.3)

1.00

HDL-cholesterol (<40 mg/dL males, <50 mg/dL females)

Multiple Supp users

44/(15.8)

0.50

0.33–0.75

Single Supp users

40/(24.5)

0.58

0.41–0.83

No Supp users

203/(38.0)

1.00

Ratio total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol (<5)

Multiple Supp users

35/(12.7)

0.49

0.32–0.74

Single Supp users

48/(35.3)

1.05

0.64–1.73

No Supp users

189/(36.5)

1.00

Triglycerides (≥150 mg/dL)

Multiple Supp users

52/(18.8)

0.44

0.27–0.71

Single Supp users

31/(41.5)

0.99

0.50–1.94

No Supp users

157/(42.8)

1.00

LDL-cholesterol (>130 mg/dL)

Multiple Supp users

109/(39.5)

0.96

0.56–1.65

Single Supp users

32/(47.6)

1.19

0.70–2.03

No Supp users

101/(42.7)

1.00

Blood Pressure (DBP>80 mmHg or SBP>120 mmHg)

Multiple Supp users

154/(55.6)

0.61

0.41–0.92

Single Supp users

117/(71.2)

1.34

0.88–2.03

No Supp users

353/(64.6)

1.00


* Logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted as in footnote to Table 4. The referent group for risk estimation was the No Supp group.

OR and 95% CI not estimable because zero events in the user group. Number and percent shown instead.

HDL = high-density lipoprotein, LDL = low-density lipoprotein, DBP = diastolic blood pressure, SBP = systolic blood pressure.

Block et al. Nutrition Journal 2007 6:30   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-6-30

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