Table 1

Characteristics of study subjects categorized by fasting glucose tolerance status

P-Values


Parameter

NFG

IFG

Diabetes

NFG vs. IFG

NFG vs. Diabetes

IFG vs. Diabetes


Total Number, M/F (n/n)

19 (5/14)

19 (9/10)

35 (28/7)

0.313

< 0.001

0.031

Age (years)

45.1 ± 4.2

45.7 ± 3.3

61.0 ± 2.0

0.989

<0.001

0.002

BMI (kg/m2)

25.8 ± 1.0

29.3 ± 1.2

32.7 ± 0.7

0.071

< 0.001

0.045

Total cholesterol (mmol/L)

5.35 ± 0.39

5.17 ± 0.24

4.72 ± 0.17

0.903

0.202

0.437

LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)

3.19 ± 0.35

2.96 ± 0.18

2.69 ± 0.14

0.799

0.246

0.649

HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)

1.53 ± 0.09

1.44 ± 0.12

1.07 ± 0.05

0.758

< 0.001

0.005

Triglycerides (mmol/L)

1.38 ± 0.18

1.73 ± 0.27

2.29 ± 0.25

0.695

0.048

0.308

Systolic BP (mm Hg)

117.0 ± 3.4

122.6 ± 3.3

129.1 ± 2.3

0.484

0.015

0.284

Diastolic BP (mm Hg)

72.6 ± 1.9

78.2 ± 1.8

77.1 ± 1.6

0.165

0.214

0.918

Fasting glucose (mmol/L)

5.22 ± 0.05

5.87 ± 0.06

7.53 ± 0.29

0.249

< 0.001

< 0.001

Fasting insulin (pmol/L)

52.8 ± 6.0

82.0 ± 11.0

124.8 ± 13.9

0.373

< 0.001

0.068

Fasting C-peptide (nmol/L)

0.63 ± 0.05

0.89 ± 0.08

1.27 ± 0.08

0.110

< 0.001

0.004

HbA1C (%)

5.2 ± 0.1

5.2 ± 0.1

6.7 ± 0.1

0.907

< 0.001

< 0.001

Glucose AUC (h*mmol/L)

11.1 ± 0.5

14.1 ± 0.8

23.1 ± 0.8

0.059

< 0.001

< 0.001

Insulin AUC (h*pmol/L)

894 ± 121

1346 ± 180

922 ± 103

0.102

0.988

0.075

C-peptide AUC (h*nmol/L)

4.2 ± 0.3

5.6 ± 0.4

4.7 ± 0.3

0.032

0.531

0.162

AUCins/glu (pmol/mmol)

78.6 ± 8.8

95.5 ± 12.2

40.7 ± 4.4

0.398

0.003

< 0.001

HOMA2-IR

1.00 ± 0.11

1.57 ± 0.21

2.48 ± 0.26

0.346

< 0.001

0.037

HOMA2-%B

83.7 ± 5.9

89.5 ± 7.9

86.7 ± 10.6

0.936

0.976

0.981

Matsuda Index

15.6 ± 2.0

8.8 ± 1.2

6.0 ± 0.6

0.003

< 0.001

0.254


Values are mean ± SEM unless otherwise specified.

Abbreviations: AUC = area under the curve, AUCins/glu= ratio of the total areas under the curve for insulin and glucose, BMI = body mass index, BP = blood pressure, HbA1c = glycosylated hemoglobin, HDL = high-density lipoprotein, HOMA2-IR = homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA2-%B = homeostasis model assessment of pancreatic beta-cell function, IFG = impaired fasting glucose, LDL = low-density lipoprotein, M/F = male/female, NFG = normal fasting glucose, Diabetes = type 2 diabetes mellitus

Maki et al. Nutrition Journal 2009 8:22   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-8-22

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