Effect of rye bread breakfasts on subjective hunger and satiety: a randomized controlled trial
1 Department of Food Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
2 Lantmännen R&D, St Göransgatan 160 A, SE-104 25 Stockholm, Sweden
3 KPL Good-Food-Practice AB, Dag Hammarskjölds väg 10B, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden
Nutrition Journal 2009, 8:39 doi:10.1186/1475-2891-8-39Published: 26 August 2009
Several studies report that dietary fibre from different sources promotes the feeling of satiety and suppresses hunger. However, results for cereal fibre from rye are essentially lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate subjective appetite during 8 h after intake of iso-caloric rye bread breakfasts varying in rye dietary fibre composition and content.
The study was divided into two parts. The first part (n = 16) compared the satiating effect of iso-caloric bread breakfasts including different milling fractions of rye (bran, intermediate fraction (B4) and sifted flour). The second part (n = 16) investigated the dose-response effect of rye bran and intermediate rye fraction, each providing 5 or 8 g of dietary fibre per iso-caloric bread breakfast. Both study parts used a wheat bread breakfast as reference and a randomised, within-subject comparison design. Appetite (hunger, satiety and desire to eat) was rated regularly from just before breakfast at 08:00 until 16:00. Amount, type and timing of food and drink intake were standardised during the study period.
The Milling fractions study showed that each of the rye breakfasts resulted in a suppressed appetite during the time period before lunch (08:30-12:00) compared with the wheat reference bread breakfast. At a comparison between the rye bread breakfasts the one with rye bran induced the strongest effect on satiety. In the afternoon the effect from all three rye bread breakfasts could still be seen as a decreased hunger and desire to eat compared to the wheat reference bread breakfast.
In the Dose-response study both levels of rye bran and the lower level of intermediate rye fraction resulted in an increased satiety before lunch compared with the wheat reference bread breakfast. Neither the variation in composition between the milling fractions nor the different doses resulted in significant differences in any of the appetite ratings when compared with one another.
The results show that rye bread can be used to decrease hunger feelings both before and after lunch when included in a breakfast meal. Rye bran induces a stronger effect on satiety than the other two rye fractions used when served in iso-caloric portions.
Trial registration number NCT00876785