Table 4

Immunomodulatory Polysaccharide Products: Oral Human Studies

Extract

Source

Study design

Population

N (experimental/control)

Dose/day

Dura-tion

Significant effects

Reference


Arabino-galactans

Larix occidentalis

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled

Healthy adults

8/15

4 g

6 weeks

↑ % CD8+ lymphocytes & blood lymphocyte proliferation

[18]



Arabino-galactans (ResistAid™)

Healthy adults given pneumococcal vaccinations day 30

21/24

4.5 g

72 days

↑ plasma IgG subtypes

[19]


Fucoidans

Undaria pinnatifida sporophylls

Randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled

Healthy adults

25 (75% fucoidan, 6 (10% fucoidan)/6

3 g

12 days

75% fucoidan: ↓ #s blood leukocytes, lymphocytes' ↑ plasma stromal derived factor-1, IFN-γ, CD34+ cells; ↑ % CXCR4-expressing CD34+ cells

[21]


Furanose extract (Cold-FX®)

Panax quinque-folium

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled

Healthy older adults given influenza immunization at the end of week 4

22/21

400 mg

4 months

During weeks 9-16, ↓ incidence of acute respiratory illness, symptom duration

[20]


Glucans

Agaricus subru-fescens

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled

Cervical, ovarian or endometrial cancer patients receiving 3 chemotherapy cycles

39/61

5.4 g (estimated)

6 weeks

↑ NK cell activity, ↓ chemotherapy side effects

[64]


Glucans

(β-1,3;1,6)

Not identified

Placebo-controlled

Recurrent aphthous stomatitis patients

31/42

20 mg

20 days

↑ PBL lymphocyte proliferation,↓ Ulcer Severity Scores

[48]


Glucans

(β-1,3;1-6)

S. cerevisiae

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled

Adults with seasonal allergic rhinitis

12/12

20 mg

12 weeks

30 minutes after nasal allergen provocation test, nasal lavage fluid: ↓ IL-4, IL-5, % eosinophils, ↑ IL-12

[47]


Glucans (PSK)

Trametes versicolor

Randomized, controlled

Patients with curatively resected colorectal cancer receiving chemotherapy

221/227

200 mg

3-5 years

↑ disease-free survival and overall survival

[56]


Controlled

Post-surgical colon cancer patients receiving chemotherapy

123/121

3 g for 4 weeks, alternating with 10 4-week courses of chemo-therapy

7 years

↑ survival from cancer deaths; no difference in disease-free or overall survival

[57]


Post-surgical colorectal cancer patients receiving chemotherapy

137/68

3 g daily

2 years

↑survival in stage III patients; ↓ recurrence in stage II & III patients

[58]


Post-surgical gastric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy

124/129

3 g for 4 weeks, alternating with 10 4-week courses of chemo-therapy

5-7 years

↑ 5-year disease-free survival rate, overall 5-year survival

[59]


Pre-surgical gastric or colorectal cancer patients

16 daily; 17 every other day/13

3 g daily or on alternate days before surgery

<14 days or 14-36 days

≥14 day treatment: ↑ peripheral blood NK cell activity, PBL cytotoxicity, proportion of PBL helper cells; ↓ proportion of PBL inducer cells; <14 day treatment: ↑ PBL response to PSK and Con A, proportion of regional node lymphocyte suppressor cells

[62]


Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled

Post-surgical stage III-IV colorectal cancer patients

56/55

3 g for 2 months, 2 g for 22 months, 1 g thereafter

8-10 years

↑ remission & survival rates

[61]


Controlled

Post-surgical stage III gastric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy

32/21

3 g

1 year

↑ survival time

[60]


Glucans (PSP)

Trametes versicolor

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled

Conventionally-treated stage III-IV non-small cell lung cancer patients

34/34

3.06 g

1 month

↑ blood IgG & IgM, total leukocyte and neutrophil counts, % body fat; ↓ patient withdrawal due to disease progression

[63]


Ramberg et al. Nutrition Journal 2010 9:54   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-54

Open Data