Table 1

Vitamin D3 and D2 sources and content*

Source

Typical Vitamin D content


Natural source

Salmon, fresh, wild (3.5 oz)

600-1000 IU of vitamin D3


Salmon, fresh, farmed (3.5 oz)

100-250 IU of vitamin D3 or D2


Salmon, canned (3.5 oz)

300-600 IU of vitamin D3


Sardines, canned (3.5 oz)

300 IU of vitamin D3


Mackerel, canned (3.5 oz)

250 IU of vitamin D3


Tuna, canned (3.6 oz)

230 IU of vitamin D3


Cod liver oil (1 tsp)

400-1000 IU of vitamin D3


Shiitake mushrooms, fresh (3.5 oz)

100 IU of vitamin D2


Shiitake mushroom, sun-dried (3.5 oz)

1600 IU of vitamin D2


Egg yolk

20 IU of vitamin D3 or D2


Exposure to sunlight, UVB (0.5 MED)

3000 IU of vitamin D3


Fortified foods

Fortified butter

50 IU/3.5 oz, usually vitamin D3


Fortified milk

100 IU/8 oz, usually vitamin D3


Fortified orange juice

100 IU/8 oz, vitamin D3


Fortified yogurts

100 IU/8 oz, usually vitamin D3


Infant formulas

100 IU/8 oz, vitamin D3


Fortified margarine

430 IU/3.5 oz, usually vitamin D3


Fortified cheeses

100 IU/3 oz, usually vitamin D3


Fortified breakfast cereals

100 IU/serving, usually vitamin D3


* IU refers to international units, which equal 25 ng.

† About 0.5 MED of UVB radiation would be absorbed after an average of 5 to 10 minutes of exposure (depending on the time of day, season, latitude, and skin sensitivity) of the arms and legs to direct sunlight.

Zhang and Naughton Nutrition Journal 2010 9:65   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-65

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