Table 4

Serum albumin and survival - multiple cancer sites

First author, year of publication, place

Year of data collection

Study design, Sample size

Cancer type

Groups being compared

RR (95%Cl), p-value

Variables adjusted for


Penel N, 2008, USA [82]

October 1997 to October 2002

Retrospective consecutive case series, 148

Breast, colon, rectum, head and neck, lung, others

>=3.8 g/dL

<3.8 g/dL

Univariate:

Median overall survival (days)

<38 g/l: 91 (1-2421)

>=38 g/l: 363 (296-429), p = 0.00001

Multivariate: 2.51 (1.51-4.18); 0.0001

Primary site, liver metastases, other viscera metastases, BMI, lymphocyte count, granulocyte count


Lam PT, 2007, Hongkong [12]

January to December 2002

Prospective cohort, 170

Lung, liver, lower gastrointestinal tract, breast,

gynecological,

haematological,

nasopharyngeal,

prostate, unknown, others

Continuous variable

Univariate: 0.94 (0.91-0.96), <0.001

Multivariate: 0.95 (0.92-0.98), 0.001

Demographic data, tumor characteristics, blood parameters, functional status, comorbidities, total symptom score, and psychosocial parameters


Santarpia L, 2006, Italy [83]

January 1996 to September 2003

Retrospective, 152

Stomach, ovaries,

colorectal, endometrium,

breast, ileum,

gallbladder,

pancreas, kidney,

skin, prostate, abdominal sarcoma, unknown

Mean (SD)

2.8 +/-0.6 g/dL

3.1+/- 0.5 g/dL

3.3+/- 0.6 g/dL

Survival in days

For 2.8 +/-0.6 g/dL = <30 days

For 3.1+/- 0.5 g/dL = 30-90 days

For 3.3+/- 0.6 g/dL = >90 days

p = 0.001

Age, gender, height, weight, BMI, hemoglobin, lymphocyte count, cholesterol, CHE, KPS score, pain, ascites, vomiting


Pasanisi F, 2001, Italy [84]

1995-1999

Retrospective consecutive case series, 76

Stomach,

colorectal, ovary, others

Mean (SD)

3.13 +/- .51 g/dL

3.57 +/- .43 g/dL

Survival in months

For 3.13 +/- .51 g/dL <= 3 months

For 3.57 +/- .43 g/dL > 3 months

P = 0.002

Age, weight, BMI, hemoglobin, lymphocyte count, cholesterol, pain and ascites


Vigano A, 2000, Canada [85]

July 1, 1996, to December 31, 1998

A prospective cohort of 227 consecutive patients

Breast,

gastrointestinal,

lung

>=3.5 g/dL

<3.5 g/dL

Univariate: 1.9 (1.4-2.8), <0.01

Multivariate: 7.3 (2.9-18.1)

Lung primary tumor, presence of liver metastases, tumor burden, co morbidity, performance status, weight loss, lymphocyte count, nausea, LDH


Maltoni M, 1997, Italy [86]

NA

Prospective consecutive case series, 519

Solid tumors excluding renal cancer and hematological cancer

Normal: 3.3-5.5 g/dL

Low: 2.7-3.2 g/dL

Very low: <=2.6 g/dL

Univariate: p = 0.0015

Median length of survival (days):

Normal =40.0

low = 29.5

Very low = 24.0 months

Total WBC, neutrophil percentage, lymphocyte percentage, proteinuria, pseudocholinesterase


Gupta and Lis Nutrition Journal 2010 9:69   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-69

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